Chapter 21: Leading the Way: The Progressive Movement, 1890-1920

Review Questions

1. Ida Tarbell wrote publicly about

  1. the need for better housing in rural America
  2. the sinister business practices of Standard Oil
  3. the need for a national temperance movement
  4. the women’s suffrage cause in the American West

2. Which of the following was not a key area of focus for the Progressives?

  1. land reform
  2. democracy
  3. business regulation
  4. social justice

3. How did muckrakers help initiate the Progressive Era?

4. What system did the direct primary replace?

  1. candidate selection by secret ballots
  2. candidate selection by machine bosses
  3. candidate selection by convention delegates
  4. an indirect primary

5. Which of the following is not an example of social justice Progressivism?

  1. anti-liquor campaigns
  2. referendums
  3. workplace safety initiatives
  4. improvements in education

6. Which of the following was not a feature of Booker T. Washington’s strategy to improve the lives of African Americans?

  1. self-help
  2. accommodating/tolerating White racism
  3. immediate protests for equal rights
  4. learning new trades/skills

7. Who were the “Silent Sentinels”?

  1. a group of progressive African Americans who drafted the Declaration of Principles
  2. anti-suffrage women
  3. an offshoot of the Industrial Workers of the World
  4. suffragists who protested outside the White House

8. Describe the philosophy and strategies of the Niagara Movement. How did it differ from Washington’s way of thinking?

9. How did Roosevelt intercede in the Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902?

  1. He invited strikers and workers to the White House.
  2. He urged the owners to negotiate a deal.
  3. He threatened to send in the army to work the mines.
  4. He ordered the National Guard to protect the strikers.

10. Which of the following was a key Progressive item passed by Taft?

  1. the Pure Food and Drug Act
  2. the U.S. Forestry Service
  3. the Mann-Elkins Act
  4. the Payne-Aldrich Act

11. Which of the following was not an outcome of the Underwood Tariff Act?

  1. It reduced tariffs 15 percent across all imports.
  2. It eliminated tariffs for steel.
  3. It eliminated tariffs for iron ore.
  4. It established a federal banking system to oversee tariffs.

12. Explain the fundamental differences between Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism” and Wilson’s “New Freedom.”

13. Why did Wilson’s “New Freedom” agenda come in two distinct phases (1913 and 1916)?


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