Chapter 8: Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820

Key Terms

Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution, which guarantee individual rights
Citizen Genêt affair
the controversy over the French representative who tried to involve the United States in France’s war against Great Britain
advocates of limited government who were troubled by the expansive domestic policies of Washington’s administration and opposed the Federalists
the practice of capturing sailors and forcing them into military service
letters of marque
French warrants allowing ships and their crews to engage in piracy
Louisiana Purchase
the U.S. purchase of the large territory of Louisiana from France in 1803
Marbury v. Madison
the landmark 1803 case establishing the Supreme Court’s powers of judicial review, specifically the power to review and possibly nullify actions of Congress and the president
Revolution of 1800
the peaceful transfer of power from the Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans with the election of 1800
the Terror
a period during the French Revolution characterized by extreme violence and the execution of numerous enemies of the revolutionary government, from 1793 through 1794
XYZ affair
the French attempt to extract a bribe from the United States during the Quasi-War of 1798–1800


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