Chapter 2: Early Globalization: The Atlantic World, 1492–1650
1. Which country initiated the era of Atlantic exploration?
2. Which country established the first colonies in the Americas?
- the Netherlands
3. Where did Christopher Columbus first land?
- the Bahamas
4. Why did the authors of probanzas de méritos choose to write in the way that they did? What should we consider when we interpret these documents today?
5. Where did the Protestant Reformation begin?
- Northern Europe
- the American colonies
6. What was the chief goal of the Puritans?
- to achieve a lasting peace with the Catholic nations of Spain and France
- to eliminate any traces of Catholicism from the Church of England
- to assist Henry VIII in his quest for an annulment to his marriage
- to create a hierarchy within the Church of England modeled on that of the Catholic Church
7. What reforms to the Catholic Church did Martin Luther and John Calvin call for?
8. Why didn’t England make stronger attempts to colonize the New World before the late sixteenth to early seventeenth century?
- English attention was turned to internal struggles and the encroaching Catholic menace to Scotland and Ireland.
- The English monarchy did not want to declare direct war on Spain by attempting to colonize the Americas.
- The English military was occupied in battling for control of New Netherlands.
- The English crown refused to fund colonial expeditions.
9. What was the main goal of the French in colonizing the Americas?
- establishing a colony with French subjects
- trading, especially for furs
- gaining control of shipping lanes
- spreading Catholicism among native peoples
10. What were some of the main differences among the non-Spanish colonies?
11. How could Spaniards obtain encomiendas?
- by serving the Spanish crown
- by buying them from other Spaniards
- by buying them from native chiefs
- by inheriting them
12. Which of the following best describes the Columbian Exchange?
- the letters Columbus and other conquistadors exchanged with the Spanish crown
- an exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe and the Americas
- a form of trade between the Spanish and natives
- the way in which explorers exchanged information about new lands to conquer
13. Why did diseases like smallpox affect Native Americans so badly?
- Native Americans were less robust than Europeans.
- Europeans deliberately infected Native Americans.
- Native Americans had no immunity to European diseases.
- Conditions in the Americas were so harsh that Native Americans and Europeans alike were devastated by disease.