Chapter 28 The Evolution and Distribution of Galaxies
For Further Exploration
Andrews, B. “What Are Galaxies Trying to Tell Us?” Astronomy (February 2011): 24. Introduction to our understanding of the shapes and evolution of different types of galaxies.
Barger, A. “The Midlife Crisis of the Cosmos.” Scientific American (January 2005): 46. On how our time differs from the early universe in terms of what galaxies are doing, and what role supermassive black holes play.
Berman, B. “The Missing Universe.” Astronomy (April 2014): 24. Brief review of dark matter, what it could be, and modified theories of gravity that can also explain it.
Faber, S., et al. “Staring Back to Cosmic Dawn.” Sky & Telescope (June 2014): 18. Program to see the most distant and earliest galaxies with the Hubble.
Geller, M., & Huchra, J. “Mapping the Universe.” Sky & Telescope (August 1991): 134. On their project mapping the location of galaxies in three dimensions.
Hooper, D. “Dark Matter in the Discovery Age.” Sky & Telescope (January 2013): 26. On experiments looking for the nature of dark matter.
James, C. R. “The Hubble Deep Field: The Picture Worth a Trillion Stars.” Astronomy (November 2015): 44. Detailed history and results, plus the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field.
Kaufmann, G., & van den Bosch, F. “The Life Cycle of Galaxies.” Scientific American (June 2002): 46. On the evolution of galaxies and how the different shapes of galaxies develop.
Knapp, G. “Mining the Heavens: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey.” Sky & Telescope (August 1997): 40.
Kron, R., & Butler, S. “Stars and Strips Forever.” Astronomy (February 1999): 48. On the Sloan Digital Survey.
Kruesi, L. “What Do We Really Know about Dark Matter?” Astronomy (November 2009): 28. Focuses on what dark matter could be and experiments to find out.
Larson, R., & Bromm, V. “The First Stars in the Universe.” Scientific American (December 2001): 64. On the dark ages and the birth of the first stars.
Nadis, S. “Exploring the Galaxy-Black Hole Connection.” Astronomy (May 2010): 28. About the role of massive black holes in the evolution of galaxies.
Nadis, S. “Astronomers Reveal the Universe’s Hidden Structure.” Astronomy (September 2013): 44. How dark matter is the scaffolding on which the visible universe rests.
Schilling, G. “Hubble Goes the Distance.” Sky & Telescope (January 2015): 20. Using gravitational lensing with HST to see the most distant galaxies.
Strauss, M. “Reading the Blueprints of Creation.” Scientific American (February 2004): 54. On large-scale surveys of galaxies and what they tell us about the organization of the early universe.
Tytell, D. “A Wide Deep Field: Getting the Big Picture.” Sky & Telescope (September 2001): 42. On the NOAO survey of deep sky objects.
Villard, R. “How Gravity’s Grand Illusion Reveals the Universe.” Astronomy (January 2013): 44. On gravitational lensing and what it teaches us.
Assembly of Galaxies: http://jwst.nasa.gov/galaxies.html. Introductory background information about galaxies: what we know and what we want to learn.
Brief History of Gravitational Lensing: http://www.einstein-online.info/spotlights/grav_lensing_history. From Einstein OnLine.
Cosmic Structures: http://skyserver.sdss.org/dr1/en/astro/structures/structures.asp. Brief review page on how galaxies are organized, from the Sloan Survey.
Discovery of the First Gravitational Lens: http://astrosociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/ab2009-33.pdf. By Ray Weymann, 2009.
Gravitational Lensing Discoveries from the Hubble Space Telescope: http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/exotic/gravitational-lens/. A chronological list of news releases and images.
Local Group of Galaxies: http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/localgr.html. Clickable map from the Atlas of the Universe project. See also their Virgo Cluster page: http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/galgrps/vir.html.
RotCurve: http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/JavaLab/RotcurveWeb/main.html. Try your hand at using real galaxy rotation curve data to measure dark matter halos using this Java applet simulation.
Sloan Digital Sky Survey Website: http://classic.sdss.org/. Includes nontechnical and technical parts.
Spyglasses into the Universe: http://www.spacetelescope.org/science/gravitational_lensing/. Hubble page on gravitational lensing; includes links to videos.
Virgo Cluster of Galaxies: http://messier.seds.org/more/virgo.html. A page with brief information and links to maps, images, etc.
Cosmic Simulations: http://www.tapir.caltech.edu/~phopkins/Site/Movies_cosmo.html. Beautiful videos with computer simulations of how galaxies form, from the FIRE group.
Cosmology of the Local Universe: http://irfu.cea.fr/cosmography. Narrated flythrough of maps of galaxies showing the closer regions of the universe (17:35).
Gravitational Lensing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Z71RtwoOas. Video from Fermilab, with Dr. Don Lincoln (7:14).
How Galaxies Were Cooked from the Primordial Soup: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wqNNCm7SNyw. A 2013 public talk by Dr. Sandra Faber of Lick Observatory about the evolution of galaxies; part of the Silicon Valley Astronomy Lecture Series (1:19:33).
Hubble Extreme Deep Field Pushes Back Frontiers of Time and Space: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gu_VhzhlqGw. Brief 2012 video (2:42).
Looking Deeply into the Universe in 3-D: https://www.eso.org/public/videos/eso1507a/. 2015 ESOCast video on how the Very Large Telescopes are used to explore the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field and learn more about the faintest and most distant galaxies (5:12).
Millennium Simulation: http://wwwmpa.mpa-garching.mpg.de/galform/virgo/millennium. A supercomputer in Germany follows the evolution of a representative large box as the universe evolves.
Movies of flying through the large-scale local structure: http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/~tully/. By Brent Tully.
Shedding Light on Dark Matter: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZW_B9CC-gI. 2008 TED talk on galaxies and dark matter by physicist Patricia Burchat (17:08).
Sloan Digital Sky Survey overview movies: http://astro.uchicago.edu/cosmus/projects/sloanmovie/.
Virtual Universe: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SY0bKE10ZDM. An MIT model of a section of universe evolving, with dark matter included (4:11).
When Two Galaxies Collide: http://www.openculture.com/2009/04/when_galaxies_collide.html. Computer simulation, which stops at various points and shows a Hubble image of just such a system in nature (1:37).