Chapter 13 Comets and Asteroids: Debris of the Solar System
1: Why are asteroids and comets important to our understanding of solar system history?
2: Give a brief description of the asteroid belt.
3: Describe the main differences between C-type and S-type asteroids.
4: In addition to the ones mentioned in Exercise 3, what is the third, rarer class of asteroids?
5: Vesta is unusual as it contains what mineral on its surface? What does the presence of this material indicate?
6: Compare asteroids of the asteroid belt with Earth-approaching asteroids. What is the main difference between the two groups?
7: Briefly describe NASA’s Spaceguard Survey. How many objects have been found in this survey?
8: Who first calculated the orbits of comets based on historical records dating back to antiquity?
9: Describe the nucleus of a typical comet and compare it with an asteroid of similar size.
10: Describe the two types of comet tails and how each are formed.
11: What classification is given to objects such as Pluto and Eris, which are large enough to be round, and whose orbits lie beyond that of Neptune?
12: Describe the origin and eventual fate of the comets we see from Earth.
13: What evidence do we have for the existence of the Kuiper belt? What kind of objects are found there?
14: Give brief descriptions of both the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud.
15: Give at least two reasons today’s astronomers are so interested in the discovery of additional Earth-approaching asteroids.
16: Suppose you were designing a spacecraft that would match course with an asteroid and follow along its orbit. What sorts of instruments would you put on board to gather data, and what would you like to learn?
17: Suppose you were designing a spacecraft that would match course with a comet and move with it for a while. What sorts of instruments would you put on board to gather data, and what would you like to learn?
18: Suppose a comet were discovered approaching the Sun, one whose orbit would cause it to collide with Earth 20 months later, after perihelion passage. (This is approximately the situation described in the science-fiction novel Lucifer’s Hammer by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle.) What could we do? Would there be any way to protect ourselves from a catastrophe?
19: We believe that chains of comet fragments like Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9’s have collided not only with the jovian planets, but occasionally with their moons. What sort of features would you look for on the outer planet moons to find evidence of such collisions? (As an extra bonus, can you find any images of such features on a moon like Callisto? You can use an online site of planetary images, such as the Planetary Photojournal, at photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov.)
20: Why have we found so many objects in the Kuiper belt in the last two decades and not before then?
21: Why is it hard to give exact diameters for even the larger objects in the Kuiper belt?
Figuring for Yourself
22: Refer to Example 13.1. How would the calculation change if a typical comet in the Oort cloud is only 1 km in diameter?
23: Refer to Example 13.1. How would the calculation change if a typical comet in the Oort cloud is larger—say, 50 km in diameter?
25: If the Oort cloud contains 1012 comets, and ten new comets are discovered coming close to the Sun each year, what percentage of the comets have been “used up” since the beginning of the solar system?
26: The mass of the asteroids is found mostly in the larger asteroids, so to estimate the total mass we need to consider only the larger objects. Suppose the three largest asteroids—Ceres (1000 km in diameter), Pallas (500 km in diameter), and Vesta (500 km in diameter)—account for half the total mass. Assume that each of these three asteroids has a density of 3 g/cm3 and calculate their total mass. Multiply your result by 2 to obtain an estimate for the mass of the total asteroid belt. How does this compare with the mass of the Oort cloud?
27: Make a similar estimate for the mass of the Kuiper belt. The three largest objects are Pluto, Eris, and Makemake (each roughly 2000 km). In addition, assume there are eight objects (including Haumea, Orcus, Quaoar, Ixion, Varuna, and Charon, and objects that have not been named yet) with diameters of about 1000 km. Assume that all objects have Pluto’s density of 2 g/cm3. Calculate twice the mass of the largest 13 objects and compare it to the mass of the main asteroid belt.
28: What is the period of revolution about the Sun for an asteroid with a semi-major axis of 3 AU in the middle of the asteroid belt?
29: What is the period of revolution for a comet with aphelion at 5 AU and perihelion at the orbit of Earth?