Chapter 28 The Evolution and Distribution of Galaxies
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
- Explain how galaxies grow by merging with other galaxies and by consuming smaller galaxies (for lunch)
- Describe the effects that supermassive black holes in the centers of most galaxies have on the fate of their host galaxies
One of the conclusions astronomers have reached from studying distant galaxies is that collisions and mergers of whole galaxies play a crucial role in determining how galaxies acquired the shapes and sizes we see today. Only a few of the nearby galaxies are currently involved in collisions, but detailed studies of those tell us what to look for when we seek evidence of mergers in very distant and very faint galaxies. These in turn give us important clues about the different evolutionary paths galaxies have taken over cosmic time. Let’s examine in more detail what happens when two galaxies collide.
Mergers and Cannibalism
Figure 28.1 shows a dynamic view of two galaxies that are colliding. The stars themselves in this pair of galaxies will not be affected much by this cataclysmic event. (See the Astronomy Basics feature box Why Galaxies Collide but Stars Rarely Do.) Since there is a lot of space between the stars, a direct collision between two stars is very unlikely. However, the orbits of many of the stars will be changed as the two galaxies move through each other, and the change in orbits can totally alter the appearance of the interacting galaxies. A gallery of interesting colliding galaxies is shown in Figure 28.7. Great rings, huge tendrils of stars and gas, and other complex structures can form in such cosmic collisions. Indeed, these strange shapes are the signposts that astronomers use to identify colliding galaxies.
Throughout this book we have emphasized the large distances between objects in space. You might therefore have been surprised to hear about collisions between galaxies. Yet (except at the very cores of galaxies) we have not worried at all about stars inside a galaxy colliding with each other. Let’s see why there is a difference.
The reason is that stars are pitifully small compared to the distances between them. Let’s use our Sun as an example. The Sun is about 1.4 million kilometers wide, but is separated from the closest other star by about 4 light-years, or about 38 trillion kilometers. In other words, the Sun is 27 million of its own diameters from its nearest neighbor. If the Sun were a grapefruit in New York City, the nearest star would be another grapefruit in San Francisco. This is typical of stars that are not in the nuclear bulge of a galaxy or inside star clusters. Let’s contrast this with the separation of galaxies.
The visible disk of the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years in diameter. We have three satellite galaxies that are just one or two Milky Way diameters away from us (and will probably someday collide with us). The closest major spiral is the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), about 2.4 million light-years away. If the Milky Way were a pancake at one end of a big breakfast table, M31 would be another pancake at the other end of the same table. Our nearest large galaxy neighbor is only 24 of our Galaxy’s diameters from us, and it will begin to crash into the Milky Way in about 3 billion years.
Galaxies in rich clusters are even closer together than those in our neighborhood (see The Distribution of Galaxies in Space). Thus, the chances of galaxies colliding are far greater than the chances of stars in the disk of a galaxy colliding. And we should note that the difference between the separation of galaxies and stars also means that when galaxies do collide, their stars almost always pass right by each other like smoke passing through a screen door.
The details of galaxy collisions are complex, and the process can take hundreds of millions of years. Thus, collisions are best simulated on a computer (Figure 28.8), where astronomers can calculate the slow interactions of stars, and clouds of gas and dust, via gravity. These calculations show that if the collision is slow, the colliding galaxies may coalesce to form a single galaxy.
When two galaxies of equal size are involved in a collision, we call such an interaction a merger (the term applied in the business world to two equal companies that join forces). But small galaxies can also be swallowed by larger ones—a process astronomers have called, with some relish, galactic cannibalism (Figure 28.9).
The very large elliptical galaxies we discussed in Galaxies probably form by cannibalizing a variety of smaller galaxies in their clusters. These “monster” galaxies frequently possess more than one nucleus and have probably acquired their unusually high luminosities by swallowing nearby galaxies. The multiple nuclei are the remnants of their victims (Figure 28.9). Many of the large, peculiar galaxies that we observe also owe their chaotic shapes to past interactions. Slow collisions and mergers can even transform two or more spiral galaxies into a single elliptical galaxy.
A change in shape is not all that happens when galaxies collide. If either galaxy contains interstellar matter, the collision can compress the gas and trigger an increase in the rate at which stars are being formed—by as much as a factor of 100. Astronomers call this abrupt increase in the number of stars being formed a starburst, and the galaxies in which the increase occurs are termed starburst galaxies (Figure 28.10). In some interacting galaxies, star formation is so intense that all the available gas is exhausted in only a few million years; the burst of star formation is clearly only a temporary phenomenon. While a starburst is going on, however, the galaxy where it is taking place becomes much brighter and much easier to detect at large distances.
When astronomers finally had the tools to examine a significant number of galaxies that emitted their light 11 to 12 billion years ago, they found that these very young galaxies often resemble nearby starburst galaxies that are involved in mergers: they also have multiple nuclei and peculiar shapes, they are usually clumpier than normal galaxies today, with multiple intense knots and lumps of bright starlight, and they have higher rates of star formation than isolated galaxies. They also contain lots of blue, young, type O and B stars, as do nearby merging galaxies.
Galaxy mergers in today’s universe are rare. Only about five percent of nearby galaxies are currently involved in interactions. Interactions were much more common billions of years ago (Figure 28.11) and helped build up the “more mature” galaxies we see in our time. Clearly, interactions of galaxies have played a crucial role in their evolution.
Active Galactic Nuclei and Galaxy Evolution
While galaxy mergers are huge, splashy events that completely reshape entire galaxies on scales of hundreds of thousands of light-years and can spark massive bursts of star formation, accreting black holes inside galaxies can also disturb and alter the evolution of their host galaxies. You learned in Active Galaxies, Quasars, and Supermassive Black Holes about a family of objects known as active galactic nuclei (AGN), all of them powered by supermassive black holes. If the black hole is surrounded by enough gas, some of the gas can fall into the black hole, getting swept up on the way into an accretion disk, a compact, swirling maelstrom perhaps only 100 AU across (the size of our solar system).
Within the disk the gas heats up until it shines brilliantly even in X-rays, often outshining the rest of the host galaxy with its billions of stars. Supermassive black holes and their accretion disks can be violent and powerful places, with some material getting sucked into the black hole but even more getting shot out along huge jets perpendicular to the disk. These powerful jets can extend far outside the starry edge of the galaxy.
AGN were much more common in the early universe, in part because frequent mergers provided a fresh gas supply for the black hole accretion disks. Examples of AGN in the nearby universe today include the one in galaxy M87 (see Figure 28.7), which sports a jet of material shooting out from its nucleus at speeds close to the speed of light, and the one in the bright galaxy NGC 5128, also known as Centaurus A (see Figure 28.12).
Many highly accelerated particles move with the jets in such galaxies. Along the way, the particles in the jets can plow into gas clouds in the interstellar medium, breaking them apart and scattering them. Since denser clouds of gas and dust are required for material to clump together to make stars, the disruption of the clouds can halt star formation in the host galaxy or cut it off before it even begins.
In this way, quasars and other kinds of AGN can play a crucial role in the evolution of their galaxies. For example, there is growing evidence that the merger of two gas-rich galaxies not only produces a huge burst of star formation, but also triggers AGN activity in the core of the new galaxy. That activity, in turn, could then slow down or shut off the burst of star formation—which could have significant implications for the apparent shape, brightness, chemical content, and stellar components of the entire galaxy. Astronomers refer to that process as AGN feedback, and it is apparently an important factor in the evolution of most galaxies.
Key Concepts and Summary
When galaxies of comparable size collide and coalesce we call it a merger, but when a small galaxy is swallowed by a much larger one, we use the term galactic cannibalism. Collisions play an important role in the evolution of galaxies. If the collision involves at least one galaxy rich in interstellar matter, the resulting compression of the gas will result in a burst of star formation, leading to a starburst galaxy. Mergers were much more common when the universe was young, and many of the most distant galaxies that we see are starburst galaxies that are involved in collisions. Active galactic nuclei powered by supermassive black holes in the centers of most galaxies can have major effects on the host galaxy, including shutting off star formation.
- galactic cannibalism
- a process by which a larger galaxy strips material from or completely swallows a smaller one
- a collision between galaxies (of roughly comparable size) that combine to form a single new structure
- a galaxy or merger of multiple galaxies that turns gas into stars much faster than usual