John Smith

from The General History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624)

Illustration from John Smith's The Generall Historie of Virginia

John Smith and the General History of Virginia


The image above, by Robert Vaughan, is an illustration that appeared in John Smith’s The General History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles. The center panel of the bottom row includes a map of “Old Virginia” and the caption “A description of part of the adventures of Cap. Smith in Virginia.” Some of these “adventures” can be seen in the surrounding panels, and if you put the illustration next to Smith’s narrative, you can begin to ask some important questions about the text and its author.

Perhaps the most well-known of Smith’s “adventures” is his encounter with Pocahontas, which, despite its Disney-fied romantic trappings, occupies a very small part of the text as a whole. He also relates the founding of the Jamestown colony, detailing his leadership role and the various challenges and personality conflicts the colonists grappled with. Smith also provides extensive information about what he found in this new world, including the landscape, the plants, animals, and its native inhabitants.

These varied “adventures” provide us with a number of ways to approach Smith’s work. Like so many other early American texts, The General History can be read through a variety of lenses. It is not only a historical document, but it is a travel narrative as well. It is also possible to read the text as a captivity narrative, despite the fact that most scholars now believe that Smith may have misinterpreted what happened when Pocahontas arrived on the scene. Instead of facing imminent death, Smith may have been unknowingly participating in an adoption ceremony accepting him into Powhatan’s tribe. Regardless of what actually transpired, the scene raises a number of questions for further consideration. For example, we might ask how Smith has positioned himself in that moment, and how that image is or isn’t consistent with what comes before and after it. Examining how that scene fits into the text, how it connects to the images in Vaughan’s illustration, or questioning why Smith includes this particular “adventure” at all are equally productive ways to approach the text.

Discussion Questions

  • Examine the images on Vaughan’s “Map of Virginia” illustration in conjunction with Smith’s narrative. How does the visual representation compare to the one that Smith describes? What does each text—the illustration and Smith’s own words—suggest to us about how the narrative and its author are being constructed?
  • How does Smith define the “New World”? How does his description compare to what we’ve seen from writers like William Bradford or Cabeza de Vaca? Does Smith seem to have the same agenda as these other writers?
  • Examine Smith’s encounter with Pocahontas. What do you make of how he has presented that scene?
  • What ideals or values does Smith seem to emphasize? How or why might these particular values be important for new colonists? How does it compare to the message offered by writers like Bradford or Winthrop?
  • How does Smith seem to be engaging with Pratt’s idea of the contact zone?

The second Booke.

THE SIXTH VOYAGE. 1606. To another part of Ʋirginia, where now are Planted our English Colonies, Whom God increase and preserve: Discovered and Described by Captain JOHN SMITH, sometimes Governor of the Country.

[ 1606] BY these former relations you may see what inconveniences still crossed those good intents, and how great a matter it was all this time to find but a Harbour, although there be so many. But this Virginia is a Country in America between the degrees of 34 and 45 of the North latitude. The bounds thereof on the East side are the great Ocean: on the South lieth Florida: on the North Nova Francia: as for the West thereof, the limits are unknown. Of all this Country we purpose nor to speak, but only of that part which was planted by the English men in the year of our Lord, 1606. And this is under the degrees 37, 38, and 39. The temperature of this Country doth agree well with English constitutions, being once seasoned to the Country. Which appeared by this, that though by many occasions our people fell sick; yet did they recover by very small means, and continued in health, though there were other great causes, not only to have made them sick, but even to end their days, etc.

The Summer is hot as in Spain; the Winter cold as in France or England. The heat of summer is in June, July, and August, but commonly the cool Breezes assuage the vehemency of the heat. The chief of winter is half December, January, February, and half March. The cold is extreme sharp, but here the Proverb is true, that no extreme long continueth.

In the year 1607 was an extraordinary frost in most of Europe, and this frost was found as extreme in Virginia. But the next year for 8 or 10 days of ill weather, other 14 days would be as Summer.

The winds here are variable, but the like thunder and lightning to purify the air, I have seldom either seen or heard in Europe. From the Southwest came the greatest gusts with thunder and heat. The Northwest wind is commonly cool and bringeth fair weather with it. From the North is the greatest cold, and from the East and Southeast as from the Bermudas, fogs and rains.

Some times there are great droughts, other times much rain, yet great necessity of neither, by reason we see not but that all the rarity of needful fruits in Europe, may be there in great plenty, by the industry of men, as appeareth by those we there Planted.

There is but one entrance by Sea into this Country,and that is at the mouth of a very goodly Bay, 18. or 20 miles broad. The cape on the South is called Cape Henry, in honour of our most noble Prince. The land white hilly sands like unto the downs, and all along the shores great plenty of Pines and Firs.

The north Cape is called Cape Charles, in honour of the worthy Duke of Yorke. The Isles before it, Smith’s Isles, by the name of the discover[er]. Within is a country that may have the prerogative over the most pleasant places known, for large and pleasant navigable Rivers, heaven & earth never agreed better to frame a place for man’s habitation; were it fully manured and inhabited by industrious people. Here are mountains, hills, plains, valleys, rivers, and brooks, all running most pleasantly into a fair Bay, compassed but for the mouth, with fruitful and delightsome land. In the Bay and rivers are many Isles both great & small, some woody, some plain, most of them low and not inhabited. This Bay lieth North and South, in which the water floweth near 200 miles, and hath a channel for 140 miles, of depth betwixt 6 and 15 fathom, holding in breadth for the most part 10 or 14 miles. From the head of the Bay to the Northwest, the land is mountainous, and so in a manner from thence by a Southwest line; So that the more Southward, the farther off from the Bay are those mountains. From which fall certain brooks which after come to five principal navigable rivers. These run from the Northwest into the South east, and so into the West side of the Bay, where the fall of every River is within 20 or 15 miles one of another.

The mountains are of diverse natures: for at the head of the Bay the rocks are of a composition like Mill stones. Some of Marble, etc. And many pieces like Crystal we found, as thrown down by water from those mountaine. For in Winter they are covered with much snow, and when it dissolveth the waters fall with such violence, that it causeth great inundations in some narrow valleys, which is scarce perceived being once in the rivers. These waters wash from the rocks such glistering tinctures, that the ground in some places seemeth as gilded, where both the rocks and the earth are so splendent to behold, that better iudgements then ours might have been persuaded, they contained more then probabilities. The vesture of the earth in most places doth manifestly prove the nature of the soil to be lusty and very rich. The colour of the earth we found in diverse places, resembleth bole Armoniac, terra sigillata, and Lemnia, Fullers earth, Marle, and diverse other such appearances. But generally for the most part it is a black sandy mould, in some places a fat slimy clay, in other places a very barren gravel. But the best ground is known by the vesture it beareth, as by the greatness of trees, or abundance of weeds, &c.

The Country is not mountainous, nor yet low, but such pleasant plain hills, and fertile valleys, one prettily crossing another, & watered so conveniently with fresh brooks and springs, no less commodious, then delightsome. By the rivers are many plain marshes, containing some 20 some 100. some 200 Acres, some more, some less. Other plains there are few, but only where the Savages inhabit: but all overgrown with trees & weeds, being a plain wilderness as God first made it.

On the west side of the Bay, we said were 5 fair and delightful navigable rivers. The first of those, and the next to the mouth of the Bay hath his course from the West Northwest. It is called Powhatan, according to the name of a principal country that lieth upon it. The mouth of this river is near three miles in breadth, yet doe the shoals force the Channel so near the land, that a Sacre will overshoot it at point blank. It is navigable 150 miles, the shoals and soundings are here needless to be expressed. It falleth from Rocks far west in a Country inhabited by a nation they call Monacans. But where it commeth into our discovery it is Powhatan. In the farthest place that was diligently observed, are falls, rocks, shoals, &c. which makes it past navigation any higher. Thence in the running downward, the river is enriched with many goodly brooks, which are maintained by an infinite number of small rundles and pleasant springs, that disperse themselves for best service, as do the veins of a mans body. From the South there falls into it: First, the pleasant river of Apamatuck. Next more to the East are two small rivers of Quiyoughcohanocke. A little farther is a Bay wherein falleth 3 or 4 pretty brooks & creeks that half entrench the Inhabitants of Warraskoyac, then the river of Nandsamund, and lastly the brook of Chisapeack. From the North side is the river of Chickahamania, the back river of James Towne; another by the Cedar Isle, where we lived ten weeks upon Oysters, then a convenient harbour for Fisher boats at Kecoughtan, that so turneth it self into Bayes and Creeks, it makes that place very pleasant to inhabit; their cornfields being girded therein in a manner as Peninsulas. The most of these rivers are inhabited by several nations, or rather families, of the name of the rivers. They have also over those some Governor, as their King, which they call Werowances. In a Peninsula on the North side of this river are the English Planted in a place by them called James Towne, in honour of the King’s most excellent Majesty.

The first and next the rivers mouth are the Kecoughtans, who besides their women & children, have not past 20. fighting men. The Paspaheghes (on whose land is seated JamesTowne, some 40. myles from the Bay) have not past 40. The river cal∣led Chickahamania neare 250. The Weanocks 100. The Arrowhatocks 30. The place called Powhatan, some 40. On the South side this river the Appamatucks have sixty fighting men. The Quiyougcohanocks 25. The Nandsamūds 200. The Chesapeacks 100. Of this last place the Bay beareth the name. In all these places is a several [military] commander, which they call Werowance, except the Chickahamanians, who are governed by the Priests and their Assistants, or their Elders called Caw-cawwassoughes. In summer no place affordeth more plenty of sturgeon, nor in winter more abundance of fowl, especially in the time of frost. I took once 52 sturgeons at a draft, at another 68. From the later end of May till the end of June are taken few, but young sturgeons of two foot, or a yard long. From thence till the midst of September, them of two or three yards long and few others. And in 4 or 5, hours with one Net were ordinarily taken 7 or 8: often more, seldom less. In the small rivers all the year there is good plenty of small fish, so that with hooks those that would take pains had sufficient.

Fourteen miles Northward from the river Powhatan, is the river Pamavnkee, which is navigable 60 or 70 miles, but with Catches and small Barkes 30 or 40 miles farther. At the ordinary flowing of the salt water, it divideth itself into two gallant branches. On the South side inhabit the people of Youghtanund, who have about 60 men for wars. On the North branch Mattapament, who have 30 men. Where this river is divided the Country is called Pamavnkee, and nourisheth near 300 able men. About 25 miles lower on the North side of this river is Werawocomoco, where their great King inhabited when I was delivered him prisoner; yet there are not past 40 able men. Ten or twelve miles lower, on the South side of this river, is Chiskiack, which hath some 40 or 50 men. These, as also Apamatuck, Irrohatock, and Powhatan, are their great King’s chief alliance, and inhabitants. The rest his Conquests.

Before we come to the third river that falleth from the mountains, there is another river (some 30 miles navigable) that cometh from the Inland, called Payankatanke, the Inhabitants are about 50 or 60 serviceable men.

The third navigable river is called Toppahanock. (This is navigable some 130 miles) At the top of it inhabit the people called Mannahoacks amongst the mountains, but they are above the place we described. Upon this river on the North side are the people Cuttatawomen, with 30 fighting men. Higher are the Moraughtacunds, with 80. Beyond them Rapahanock with 100. Far above is another Cuttatawomen with 20. On the South is the pleasant seat of Nantaughtacund having 150 men. This river al∣so as the two former, is replenished with fish and fowl.

The fourth river is called Patawomeke, 6 or 7 miles in breadth. It is navigable 140 miles, and fed as the rest with many sweet rivers and springs, which fall from the bordering hills. These hills many of them are planted, and yield no less plenty and variety of fruit, then the river exceedeth with abundance of fish. It is inhabited on both sides. First on the South side at the very entrance is Wighcocomoco & hath some 130 men, beyond them Sekacawone with 30. The Onawmanient with 100. And the Patawomekes more then 200. Here doth the river divide it self into 3 or 4 convenient branches. The greatest of the least is called Quiyough, trending Northwest, but the river itself turneth Northeast, and is still a navigable stream. On the Western side of this bought is Tauxenent with 40 men. On the North of this river is Secowo∣comoco with 40. Somewhat further Potapaco with 20. In the East part is Pamacaeack with 60. After Moyowance with 100. And lastly, Nacotchtanke with 80. The river above this place maketh his passage down a low pleasant valley overshadowed in many places with high rocky mountains; from whence distill innumerable sweet and pleasant springs.

The fifth river is called Pawtuxunt, of a less proportion then the rest; but the channel is 16 fathom deep in some places. Here are infinite schools of diverse kinds of fish more then elsewhere. Upon this river dwell the people called Acquintanacksuak, Pawtuxunt, and Mattapanient. Two hundred men was the greatest strength that could be there perceived. But they inhabit together, and not so dispersed as the rest. These of all other we found most civil to give entertainment.

Thirty leagues Northward is a river not inhabited, yet navigable; for the red clay resembling bole Armoniack we called it Bolus. At the end of the Bay where it is 6 or 7 miles in breadth, it divides it self into 4. branches, the best cometh Northwest from among the mountains, but though canoes may go a day’s iourney or two up it, we could not get two miles up it with our boat for rocks. Upon it is seated the Sasquesahanocks, near it North and by West runneth a creek a mile and a half: at the head whereof the Eble left us on shore, where we found many trees cut with hatchets. The next tide keeping the shore to seek for some Savages; (for within thirty leagues sailing, we saw not any, being a barren Country,) we went up another small river like a creek 6 or 7 mile. From thence returning we met 7 Canowes of the Massowomeks, with whom we had conference by signs, for we understood one another scarce a word: the next day we discovered the small river & people of Tockwhogh trending Eastward.

Having lost our Grapnell among the rocks of Sasquesahanocks, we were then near 200 miles from home, and our Barge about two runs, and had in it but 12 men to perform this Discovery, wherein we lay above 12 weeks upon those great waters in those unknown Countries, having nothing but a little meal, oatmeal, and water to feed us, and scarce half sufficient of that for half that time, but what provision we got among the Savages, and such roots and fish as we caught by accident, and God’s direction; nor had we a Mariner nor any had skill to trim the sails but two sailors and my self, the rest being Gentlemen, or them were as ignorant in such toil and labor. Yet necessity in a short time by good words and examples made them do that that caused them ever after to fear no colours. What I did with this small means I leave to the Reader to judge, and the map I made of the Country, which is but a small matter in regard of the magnitude thereof. But to proceed, 60 of those Sasquesahanocks came to vs with skins, Bows, Arrows, Targets, Beads, Swords, and Tobacco pipes for presents. Such great and well proportioned men are seldom seen, for they seemed like Giants to the English, yea and to the neighbors, yet seemed of an honest and simple disposition, with much ado restrained from ado∣ring vs as Gods. Those are the strangest people of all those Countries, both in language & attire; for their language it may well beseeme their proportions, sounding from them, as a voice in a vault. Their attire is the skins of Bears, and Wolves, some have Cassacks made of Bears heads & skins, that a man’s head goes through the skin’s neck, and the ears of the Bear fastened to his shoulders, the nose and teeth hanging down his breast, another Bear’s face split behind him, and at the end of the nose hung a Paw, the half sleeves coming to the elbows were the necks of Bears, and the arms through the mouth with paws hanging at their noses. One had the head of a Wolf hanging in a chain for a jewel, his Tobacco pipe three quarters of a yard long, prettily carved with a Bird, a Deere, or some such de∣vise at the great end, sufficient to beat out one’s brains: with Bows, Arrows, and clubs, suitable to their greatness. These are scarce known to Powhatan. They can make near 600 able men, and are pallisaded in their Townes to defend them from the Massawomekes their mortal enemies. Five of their chief Werowances came aboard us, and crossed the Bay in their Barge. The picture of the greatest of them is signified in the map. The calf of whose leg was three quarters of a yard about, and all the rest of his limbs so answerable to that proportion, that he seemed the goodliest man we ever beheld. His hair, the one side was long, the other shore close with a ridge over his crown like a cock’s comb. His arrows were five quarters long, headed with the splinters of a white crystal-like stone, in form of a heart, an inch broad, and an inch and a half or more long. These he wore in a wolf’s skin at his back for his Quiver, his bow in the one hand and his club in the other, as is described.

On the East side the Bay, is the river Tockwhogh, and upon it a people that can make 100 men, seated some seven miles within the river: where they have a Fort very well pallisaded and mantelled with barks of trees. Next them is Ozinies with sixty men. More to the South of that East side of the Bay, the river Rapahanock, near unto which is the river Kuskarawaock, upon which is seated a people with 200 men. After that, is the river Tants Wighcocomoco, & on it a people with 100 men. The people of those rivers are of little stature, of another language from the rest, & very rude. But they on the river Acohanock with 40 men, & they of Accomack 80 men doth equalize any of the Territories of Powhatan, and speak his language, who over all those doth rule as King.

Southward we went to some parts of Chawonock and the Mangoags to search for them left by Mr White. Amongst those people are thus many several Nations of sundry Languages, that environ Powhatan’s Territories. The Chawonockes, the Mangoags, the Monacans, the Mannahokes, the Masawomekes, the Powhatans, the Sasquesa∣hanocks, the Atquanachukes, the Tockwoghes, and the Kuscarawaokes. All those not any one understandeth another but by Interpreters. Their several habitations are more plainly described by this annexed map, which will present to the eye, the way of the mountains, and current of the rivers, with their several turnings, bays, shoals, Isles, Inlets, and creeks, the breadth of the waters, the distances of places, and such like. In which map observe this, that as far as you see the little Crosses on rivers, mountains, or other places have been discovered; the rest was had by information of the Savages, and are set down according to their instructions.


Thus have I walked a wayless way, with uncouth pace,
Which yet no Christian man did ever trace:
But yet I know this not affects the mind,
Which ears doth hear, as that which eyes doe find.

Of such things which are naturally in Virginia, and how they use them.

VIRGINIA doth afford many excellent vegetables, and living Creatures, yet grass there is little or none, but what groweth in low Marshes: for all the Country is overgrown with trees, whose droppings continually turneth their grass to weeds, by reason of the rankness of the ground, which would soon be amended by good husbandry. The wood that is most common is Oak and Walnut, many of their oaks are so tall & straight, that they will bear two foot and a half square of good timber for 20 yards long; Of this wood there is two or three several kinds. The Acorns of one kind, whose bark is more white than the other, & somewhat sweetish, which being boiled, at last affords a sweet oil, that they keep in gourds to anoint their heads and joints. The fruit they eat made in bread or otherwise. There is also some Elm, some black Walnut tree, and some Ash: of Ash and Elm they make soap Ashes. If the trees be very great, the Ashes will be good, and melt to hard lumps, but if they be small, it will be but powder, and not so good as the other. Of walnuts there is 2 or 3 kinds; there is a kind of wood we called Cypress, because both the wood, the fruit, and leaf did most resemble it, and of those trees there are some near three fathom about at the foot, very straight, and 50, 60, or 80 foot without a branch. By the dwelling of the Salvages are some great Mulberry trees, and in some parts of the Country, they are found growing naturally in pretty groves. There was an assay made to make silk, and surely the worm’s prospered excellent well, till the master workman fell sick. During which time they were eaten with Rats.

In some parts were found some Chesnuts, whose wild fruit equalize the best in France, Spain, Germany, or Italy. Plums there are of three sorts. The red and white are like our hedge plums, but the other which they call Putchamins [Persimmons], grow as high as a Palmetto: the fruit is like a Medler; it is first green, then yellow, and red when it is ripe; if it be not ripe, it will draw a mans mouth awry, with much torment, but when it is ripe, it is as delicious as an Apricot.

They have Cherries, and those are much like a Damson, but for their tastes and color we called them Cherries. We saw some few Crabs [crab apples], but very small and bitter. Of vines great abundance in many parts that climb the tops of the highest trees in some places, but these bear but few grapes. Except by the rivers & savage habitations, where they are not overshadowed from the sun, they are covered with fruit, though never pruned nor manured. Of those hedge grapes we made near twenty gallons of wine, which was like our French Brittish wine, but certainly they would prove good were they well manured. There is another sort of grape near as great as a Cherry, this they call Messamins [possibly muscadine], they be fat, and the juice thick. Neither doth the taste so well please when they are made in wine. They have a small fruit growing on little trees, husked like a Chesnut, but the fruit most like a very small Acorn. This they call Chechinquamins, which they esteem a great dainty. They have a berry much like our Gooseberry, in greatness, colour, and taste; those they call Rawcomens [probably a native cranberry], and do eat them raw or boiled. Of these natural fruits they live a great part of the year, which they use in this manner; The Walnuts, Chesnuts, Acorns, and Chechinquamins are dried to keep. When they need walnuts they break them between two stones, yet some part of the shells will cleave to the fruit. Then doe they dry them again upon a Mat over a hurdle. After they put it into a mortar of wood, and beat it very small: that done they mix it with water, that the shells may sink to the bottom. This water will be colored as milk, which they call Pawco∣hiccora, and keep it for their use. The fruit like Medlers they call Putchamins, they cast upon hurdles on a Mat, and preserve them as Prunes. Of their Chesnuts and Chechinquamins boiled, they make both broth and bread for their chief men, or at their greatest feasts. Besides those fruit trees, there is a white Poplar, and another tree like unto it, that yieldeth a very clear and an odoriferous gum like Turpentine, which some called Balsam. There are also Cedars and Sassafras trees. They also yield gums in a small proportion of themselves. We tried conclusions to extract it out of the wood, but nature afforded more then our arts.

In the watery valleys groweth a Berry which they call Ocoughtanamnis very much like unto Capers. These they dry in summer. When they eat them they boil them near half a day; for otherwise they differ not much from poison. Mattoum groweth as our Bents. The feed is not much unlike to Rye, though much smaller. This they use for a dainty bread buttered with dear suet.

During Summer there are either Strawberries, which ripen in April, or Mulberries which ripen in May and June. Raspises, hurts; or a fruit that the inhabitants call Maracocks,which is a pleasant wholesome fruit much like a Lemon. Many herbs in the spring are commonly dispersed throughout the woods, good for broths and salads, as Violets, Purslane, Sorrell, & etc. Besides many we used whose names we know not.

The chief root they have for food is called Tockawhoughe. It groweth like a flag in Marshes. In one day a Savage will gather sufficient for a week. These roots are much of the greatness and taste of Potatoes. They use to cover a great many of them with Oak leaves and Fern, and then cover all with earth in the manner of a Colepit; over it, on each side, they continue a great fire 24 hours before they dare eat it. Raw it is no better then poison, and being roasted, except it be tender and the heat a∣bated, or sliced and dried in the Sun, mixed with sorrell and meal or such like, it will prickle and torment the throat extremely, and yet in summer they use this ordinarily for bread.

They have another root which they call Wighsacan: as the other feedeth the body, so this cureth their hurts and diseases. It is a small root which they bruise and apply to the wound. Pocones is a small root that groweth in the mountains, which being dried and beat in powder turneth red. And this they use for swellings, aches, annointing their joints, painting their heads and garments. They account it very precious, and of much worth. Musquaspen is a root of the bigness of a finger, and as red as blood. In drying; it will wither almost to nothing. This they use to paint their Mats, Targets, and such like.

There is also Pellitory of Spain, Sasafrage, and diverse other simples, which the Apothecaries gathered, and commended to be good, and medicinable.

In the low Marshes grow plots of Onions, containing an Acre of ground or more in many places; but they are small, not past the bigness of the top of one’s Thumb.

Of beasts the chief are Deere, nothing differing from ours. In the deserts towards the heads of the rivers, there are many, but amongst the rivers few. There is a beast they call Aroughcun, much like a badger, but useth to live on trees as Squirrels doe. Their Squirrels some are near as great as our smallest sort of wild Rabbets, some blackish or black and white, but the most are gray.

A small beast they have they call Assapanick, but we call them flying Squirrels, because spreading their legs, and so stretching the largeness of their skins, that they have been seen to fly 30 or 40 yards. An Opossum hath a head like a Swine, and a tail like a Rat, and is of the bigness of a Cat. Under her belly she hath a bag, wherein she lodgeth, carrieth, and suckleth her young. A Mussascus is a beast of the form and nature of our water Rats, but many of them smell exceeding strongly of Musk. Their Hares no bigger then our Conies, and few of them to be found.

Their Bears are very little in comparison of those of Muscovia and Tartaria. The Beaver is as big as an ordinary water dog, but his legs exceeding short. His forefeet like a dogs, his hinder feet like a Swans. His tail somewhat like the form of a Racket, bare without hair, which to eat the Savages esteem a great delicate. They have many Otters,which as the Beaver’s they take with snares, and esteem the skins great ornaments, and of all those beasts they vse to feed when they catch them. An Utchunquoyes is like a wild Cat. Their Foxes are like our silver haired Conies, of a small proportion, and not smelling like those in England. Their Dogs of that Country are like their Wolves, and cannot bark but howl, and the Wolves not much bigger then our English Foxes. Martins, Polecats, Weasels, and Minks we know they have, because we have seen many of their skins, though very seldom any of them alive. But one thing is strange, that we could never perceive their Vermin destroy our Hens, Eggs, nor Chickens, nor do any hurt, nor their flies nor serpents any way pernicious, where in the South parts of America they are always dangerous, and often deadly.

Of Birds the Eagle is the greatest devourer. Hawks there be of diverse sorts, as our Falconers called them: Sparrow-hawks, Lanarets, Goshawks, Falcons and Ospreyes, but they all prey most upon fish. Their Partridges are little bigger then our Quailes. Wilde Turkeys are as big as our tame. There are Woosels or Blackbirds with red shoulders, Thrushes and divers sorts of small Birds, some red, some blew, scarce so big as a Wren, but few in Summer. In Winter there are great plenty of Swans, Cranes, gray and white with black wings, Herons, Geese, Brants, Duck, Wigeon, Dotterell, Oxeies, Parrots, and Pigeons. Of all those sorts great abun∣dance, and some other strange kinds, to vs vnknown by name. But in Summer not any, or a very few to be seen.

Of fish we were best acquainted with Sturgeon, Grampus, Porpoise, Seals, Stingrays, whose tails are very dangerous. Bretts, Mullets, white Salmons, Trouts, Soles, Plaice, Herrings, Conyfish, Rockfish, Eeles, Lampreyspunc; Catfish, Shades•punc; P•arch of three sorts, Crabs, Shrimps, Crevises, Oysters, Cockles, and Muscles. But the most strange fish is a small one, so like the picture of St George his Dragon, as possible can be, except his legs and wings, and the Toadfish, which will swell till it be like to burst, when it commeth into the air.

Concerning the entrails of the earth, little can be said for certainty. There wanted good Refiners; for those that took upon them to have skill this way, took up the washings from the mountains, and some moskered shining stones and spangles which the waters brought down, flattering themselves in their own vain conceits to have been supposed what they were not, by the means of that ore, if it proved as their arts and iudgements expected. Only this is certain, that many regions lying in the same latitude, afford Mines very rich of diverse natures. The crust also of these rocks would easily persuade a man to believe there are other Mines then iron and steel, if there were but means and men of experience that knew the Mine from Spar.

Of their Planted fruits in Virginia, and how they vse them.

They divide the yeare into fiue seasons. Their winter some call Popanow, the spring Cattapeuk, the sommer Cohattayough, the earing of their Corne Ne∣pinough, the harvest and fall of leafe Taquitock. From September vntill the midst of November are the chiefe feasts & sacrifice. Then haue they plentie of fruits as well planted as naturall, as corne, greene and ripe, fish, fowle, and wilde beasts exceeding fat.

The greatest labour they take, is in planting their corne, for the Country natu∣rally is overgrowne with wood. To prepare the ground they bruise the barke of the trees neare the root, then doe they scortch the roots with fire that they grow no more. The next yeare with a crooked peece of wood they beat vp the weeds by the rootes, and in that mould they plant their Corne. Their manner is this. They make a hole in the earth with a sticke and into it they put foure graines of wheate and two of beanes These hol•s they make foure foote one from another; Their women and children do continually keepe it with weeding, and when it is growne middle high, they hill it about like a hop-yard.

In Aprill they begin to plant, but their chiefe plantation is in May, and so they continue till the midst of Iune. What they plant in Aprill they reape in August, for May in September, for Iune in October; Every stalke of their corne commonly beareth two eares, some three, seldome any foure, many but one, and some none. Every care ordinarily hath betwixt 200 and 500 graines. The stalke being greene hath a sweet iuice in it, somewhat like a sugar Cane, which is the cause that when they gather their corne greene, they sucke the stalkes: for as we gather greene pease, so doe they their corne being greene, which excelleth their old. They plant also pease they call Assentamen•, which are the same they call in Italy, Fag•h. Their Beanes are the same the Turkes call Garnanses, but these they much esteeme for dainties.

Their corne they rost in the eare greene, and bruising it in a morter of wood with a Polt, lap it in rowles in the leaues of their corne, and so boyle it for a daintie. They also reserue that corne late planted that will not ripe, by roasting it in hot ashes, the heat thereof drying it. In winter they esteeme it being boyled with beanes for a rare dish, they call Pausarowmena. Their old wheat they first steepe a night in hot water, in the morning pounding it in a morter. They vse a small basket for their Temmes, then pound againe the great, and so separating by dashing their hand in the basket, receiue the flower in a platter made of wood, scraped to that forme with burning and shels. Tempering this flower with water, they make it either in cakes, covering them with ashes till they be baked, and then washing them in faire water, they drie presently with their owne heat: or else boyle them in water, eating the broth with the bread which they call Ponap. The grouces and peeces of the cornes remaining, by fanning in a Platter or in the wind, away, the branne they boyle 3 or 4 houres with water, which is an ordinary food they call Vstatahamen. But some more thriftie then cleanly, doe burne the core of the eare to powder, which they call Pungnough, mingling that in their meale, but it never tasted well in bread, nor broth. Their fish & flesh they boyle either very tenderly, or boyle it so long on hurdles over the fire, or else after the Spanish fashion, putting it on a spit, they turne first the one side, then the other, till it be as drie as their ierkin Beefe in the west Indies, that they may keepe it a moneth or more without putrifying. The broth of fish or flesh they eat as com∣monly as the meat.

In May also amongst their corne they plant Pumpeons, and a fruit like vnto a muske mellon, but lesse and worse, which they call Macocks. These increase exceedingly, and ripen in the beginning of Iuly, and continue vntill September. They plant also Maracocks a wild fruit like a Lemmon, which also increase infinitely. They begin to ripe in September, and continue till the end of October. When all their fruits be gathered, little els they plant, and this is done by their women and children; neither doth this long suffice them, for neare three parts of the yeare, they onely ob∣serue times and seasons, and liue of what the Country naturally affordeth from hand to mouth, &c.

The Commodities in Virginia, or that may be had by Industrie.

THe mildnesse of the ayre, the fertilitie of the soyle, and situation of the rivers are so propitious to the nature and vse of man, as no place is more conveni∣ent for pleasure, profit, and mans sustenance, vnder that latitude or climat. Here will liue any beasts, as horses, goats, sheepe, asses, hens, &c. as appeared by them that were carried thether. The waters, Isles, and shoales, are full of safe har∣bours for ships of warre or marchandize, for boats of all sorts, for transportation or fishing, &c. The Bay and rivers haue much marchantable fish, and places fit for Salt coats, building of ships, making of Iron, &c.

Muscovia and Polonia doe yearely receiue many thousands, for pitch, tarre, sope-ashes, Rosen, Flax, Cordage, Sturgeon, Masts. Yards, Wainscot, Firres, Glasse, and such like; also Swethland for Iron and Copper. France in like manner, for Wine, Can∣vas, and Salt. Spaine asmuch for Iron, Steele, Figges, Reasons, and Sackes. Italy with Silkes and Velvets consumes our chiefe Commodities. Holland maintaines it selfe by fishing and trading at our owne doores. All these temporize with other for neces∣sities, but all as vncertaine as peace or warres. Besides the charge, travell, and danger in transporting them, by seas, lands, stormes, and Pyrats. Then how much hath Virginia the prerogatiue of all those flourishing Kingdomes, for the benefit of our Land, when as within one hundred myles all those are to be had, either ready pro∣vided by nature, or else to be prepared, were there but industrious men to labour. Onely of Copper we may doubt is wanting, but there is good probabilitie that both Copper and better Minerals are there to be had for their labour. Other Countries haue it. So then here is a place, a nurse for souldiers, a practise for mariners, a trade for marchants, a reward for the good, and that which is most of all, a business (most acceptable to God) to bring such poore Infidels to the knowledge of God and his holy Gospell.

Of the naturall Inhabitants of VIRGINIA.

THe land is not populous, for the men be few; their far greater number is of wo∣men and children. Within 60 myles of Iames Towne, there are about some 5000 people, but of able men fit for their warres scarce 1500. To nourish so many together they haue yet no means, because they make so small a benefit of their land, be it never so fertile. Six or seauen hundred haue beene the most hath beene seene together, when they gathered themselues to haue surprised mee at Pamavnkee, having but fifteene to withstand the worst of their fury. As small as the proportion of ground that hath yet beene discovered, is in comparison of that yet vn∣knowne: the people differ very much in stature, especially in language, as before is expressed. Some being very great as the Sasquesahanecks; others very little, as the Wighcocomocoes: but generally tall and straight, of a comely proportion, and of a co∣lour browne when they are of any age, but they are borne white. Their hayre is ge∣nerally blacke, but few haue any beards. The men weare halfe their beards shaven, the other halfe long; for Barbers they vse their women, who with two shels will grate away the hayre, of any fashion they please. The women are cut in many fashions, a∣greeable to their yeares, but ever some part remaineth long. They are very strong, of an able body and full of agilitie, able to endure to lie in the woods vnder a tree by the fire, in the worst of winter, or in the weedes and grasse, in Ambuscado in the Sommer.They are inconstant in every thing, but what feare constraineth them to keepe. Craftie, timerous, quicke of apprehension, and very ingenuous. Some are of disposition fearefull, some bold, most cautelous, all Savage. Generally covetous of Copper, Beads, and such like trash. They are soone moued to anger, and so malici∣ous, that they seldome forget an iniury: they seldome steale one from another, least their coniurers should reveale it, and so they be pursued and punished. That they are thus feared is certaine, but that any can reueale their offences by coniuration I am doubtfull. Their women are carefull not to be suspected of dishonestie without the leaue of their husbands. Each houshold knoweth their owne lands, and gardens, and most liue of their owne labours. For their apparell, they are sometime covered with the skinnes of wilde beasts, which in Winter are dressed with the hayre, but in Sommer without.The better sort vse large mantels of Deare skins, not much dif∣fering in fashion from the Irish mantels. Some imbrodered with white beads, some with Copper, other painted after their manner. But the common sort haue scarce to cover their nakednesse, but with grasse, the leaues of trees, or such like. We haue seene some vse mantels made of Turky feathers, so prettily wrought & woven with threads that nothing could be discerned but the feathers. That was exceeding warme and very handsome. But the women are alwayes covered about their middles with a skin, and very shamefast to be seene bare. They adorne themselues most with cop∣per beads and paintings. Their women, some haue their legs, hands, breasts and face cunningly imbrodered with divers workes, as beasts, serpents, artificially wrought into their flesh with blacke spots. In each eare commonly they haue 3 great holes, whereat they hang chaines, bracelets, or copper. Some of their men weare in those holes, a small greene and yellow coloured snake, neare halfe a yard in length, which crawling and lapping her selfe about his necke oftentimes familiarly would kisse his lips. Others weare a dead Rat tyed by the taile. Some on their heads weare the wing of a bird, or some large feather with a Rattell. Those Rattels are somewhat like the chape of a Rapier, but lesse, which they take from the taile of a snake. Many haue the whole skinne of a Hawke or some strange foule, stuffed with the wings abroad. O∣thers a broad peece of Copper, and some the hand of their enemy dryed. Their heads and shoulders are painted red with the roote Pocone brayed to powder, mixed with oyle, this they hold in sommer to preserue them from the heate, and in winter from the cold. Many other formes of paintings they vse, but he is the most gallant that is the most monstrous to behold.

Their buildings and habitations are for the most part by the rivers, or not farre di∣stant from some fresh spring. Their houses are built like our Arbors, of small young springs bowed and tyed, and so close covered with Mats, or the barkes of trees very handsomely, that notwithstanding either winde, raine, or weather, they are as warme as stooues, but very smoaky, yet at the toppe of the house there is a hole made for the smoake to goe into right over the fire.

Against the fire they lie on little hurdles of Reeds covered with a Mat, borne from the ground a foote and more by a hurdle of wood. On these round about the house they lie heads and points one by th’other against the fire, some covered with Mats, some with skins, and some starke naked lie on the ground, from 6 to 20 in a house. Their houses are in the midst of their fields or gardens, which are small plots of ground. Some 20 acres, some 40. some 100. some 200. some more, some lesse. In some places from 2 to 50 of those houses together, or but a little separated by groues of trees. Neare their habitations is little small wood or old trees on the ground by rea∣son of their burning of them for fire. So that a man may gallop a horse amongst these woods any way, but where the creekes or Rivers shall hinder.

Men, women, and children haue their severall names according to the severall humor of their Parents. Their women (they say) are easily delivered of childe, yet doe they loue children very dearely. To make them hardie, in the coldest mornings they them wash in the rivers, and by painting and oyntments so tanne their skinnes, that after a yeare or two, no weather will hurt them.

The men bestow their times in fishing, hunting, warres, and such man-like exer∣cises, scorning to be seene in any woman-like exercise, which is the cause that the wo∣men be very painefull, and the men often idle. The women and children doe the rest of the worke. They make mats, baskets, pots, morters, pound their corne, make their bread, prepare their victuals, plant their corne, gather their corne, beare all kind of burdens, and such like.

Their fire they kindle presently by chafing a dry pointed sticke in a hole of a little square peece of wood, that firing it selfe, will so fire mosse, leaues, or any such like dry thing, that will quickly burne. In March and Aprill they liue much vpon their fishing wires; and feed on fish, Turkies, and Squirrels. In May and Iune they plant their fields, and liue most of Acornes, Walnuts, and fish. But to amend their dyet, some disperse themselues in small companies, and liue vpon fish, beasts, crabs, oy∣sters, land Tortoises, strawberries, mulberries, and such like. In Iune, Iuly, and August, they feed vpon the rootes of Tocknough berries, fish, and greene wheat. It is strange to see how their bodies alter with their dyet, even as the deere & wilde beasts they seeme fat and leane, strong and weake. Powhatan their great King, and some others that are provident, rost their fish and flesh vpon hurdles as before is expressed, and keepe it till scarce times.

For fishing, hunting, and warres they vse much their bow and arrowes. They bring their bowes to the forme of ours by the scraping of a shell. Their arrowes are made some of straight young sprigs, which they head with bone, some 2 or 3 ynches long. These they vse to shoot at Squirrels on trees. Another sort of arrowes they vse made of Reeds. These are peeced with wood, headed with splinters of christall, or some sharpe stone, the spurres of a Turkey, or the bill of some bird. For his knife he hath the splinter of a Reed to cut his feathers in forme. With this knife also, he will ioynt a Deere, or any beast, shape his shooes, buskins, mantels, &c. To make the noch of his arrow he hath the tooth of a Beaver, set in a sticke, wherewith he gra∣teth it by degrees. His arrow head he quickly maketh with a little bone, which he ever weareth at his bracert, of any splint of a stone, or glasse in the forme of a heart, and these they glew to the end of their arrowes. With the sinewes of Deere, and the tops of Deeres hornes boyled to a ielly, they make a glew that will not dissolue in cold water.

For their warres also they vse Targets that are round and made of the barkes of trees, and a sword of wood at their backes, but oftentimes they vse for swords the horne of a Deere put through a peece of wood in forme of a Pickaxe. Some a long stone sharpned at both ends, vsed in the same manner. This they were wont to vse also for hatchets, but now by trucking they haue plentie of the same forme of yron. And those are their chiefe instruments and armes.

Their fishing is much in Boats. These they make of one tree by burning and scratching away the coales with stones and shels, till they haue made it in forme of a Trough. Some of them are an elne deepe, and fortie or fiftie foote in length, and some will beare 40 men, but the most ordinary are smaller, and will beare 10, 20, or 30. according to their bignesse. In stead of Oares, they vse Paddles and stickes, with which they will row faster then our Barges. Betwixt their hands and thighes, their women vse to spin, the barkes of trees, Deere sinewes, or a kind of grasse they call Pemmenaw, of these they make a thread very even and readily. This thread serveth for many vses. As about their housing, apparell, as also they make nets for fishing, for the quantitie as formally braded as ours. They make also with it lines for angles. Their hookes are either a bone grated as they noch their arrowes in the forme of a crooked pinne or fish-hooke, or of the splinter of a bone tyed to the clift of a little sticke, and with the end of the line, they tie on the bait. They vse also long arrowes tyed in a line, wherewith they shoote at fish in the rivers. But they of Accawmack vse staues like vnto Iauelins headed with bone. With these they dart fish swimming in the water. They haue also many artificiall wires, in which they get abundance of fish.

In their hunting and fishing they take extreame paines; yet it being their ordinary exercise from their infancy, they esteeme it a pleasure and are very proud to be ex∣pert therein. And by their continuall ranging, and travell, they know all the advan∣tages and places most frequented with Deere, Beasts, Fish, Foule, Roots, and Berries. At their huntings they leaue their habitations, and reduce themselues into compa∣nies, as the Tartars doe, and goe to the most desert places with their families, where they spend their time in hunting and fowling vp towards the mountaines, by the heads of their rivers, where there is plentie of game. For betwixt the rivers the grounds are so narrowe, that little commeth here which they devoure not. It is a marvell they can so directly passe these deserts, some 3 or 4 dayes iourney without habitation. Their hunting houses are like vnto Arbours covered with Mats. These their women beare after them, with Corne, Acornes, Morters, and all bag and bag∣gage they vse. When they come to the place of exercise, every man doth his best to shew his dexteritie, for by their excelling in those qualities, they get their wiues. Fortie yards will they shoot levell, or very neare the marke, and 120 is their best at Random. At their huntings in the deserts they are commonly two or three hundred together. Having found the Deere, they environ them with many fires, & betwixt the fires they place themselues. And some take their stands in the midsts. The Deere being thus feared by the fires, and their voyces, they chase them so long within that circle, that many times they kill 6, 8, 10, or 15 at a hunting. They vse also to driue them into some narrow poynt of land, when they find that advantage; and so force them into the river, where with their boats they haue Ambuscadoes to kill them. When they haue shot a Deere by land, they follow him like bloud-hounds by the bloud, and straine, and oftentimes so take them. Hares, Partridges, Turkies, or Egges, fat or leane, young or old, they devoure all they can catch in their power. In one of these huntings they found me in the discovery of the head of the river of Chicka∣hamania, where they slew my men, and tooke me prisoner in a Bogmire, where I saw those exercises, and gathered these Observations.

One Salvage hunting alone, vseth the skinne of a Deere slit on the one side, and so put on his arme, through the neck, so that his hand comes to the head which is stuf∣fed, and the hornes, head, eyes, eares, and every part as artificially counterfeited as they can devise. Thus shrowding his body in the skinne by stalking, he approacheth the Deere, creeping on the ground from one tree to another. If the Deere chance to find fault, or stand at gaze, he turneth the head with his hand to his best advantage to seeme like a Deere, also gazing and licking himselfe. So watching his best advan∣tage to approach, having shot him, he chaseth him by his bloud and straine till he get him.

When they intend any warres, the Werowances vsually haue the advice of their their Priests and Coniurers, and their allies, and ancient friends, but chiefely the Priests determine their resolution. Every Werowance, or some lustie fellow, they ap∣point Captaine over every nation. They seldome make warre for lands or goods, but for women and children, and principally for revenge. They haue many enemies, namely, all their westernly Countries beyond the mountaines, and the heads of the rivers. Vpon the head of the Powhatans are the Monacans, whose chiefe habitation is at Rasauweak, vnto whom the Mowhemenchughes, the Massinnacacks, the Mona∣hassanughs, the Monasickapanoughs, and other nations pay tributes. Vpon the head of the river of Toppahanock is a people called Mannahoacks. To these are contributers the Tauxanias, the Shackaconias, the Ontponeas, the Tegninateos, the Whonkenteaes, the Stegarakes, the Hassinnungaes, and divers others, all confederates with the Monacans, though many different in language, and be very barbarous, liuing for the most part of wild beasts and fruits. Beyond the mountaines from whence is the head of the river Patawomeke, the Salvages report inhabit their most mortall enemies, the Massa∣womekes, vpon a great salt water, which by all likelihood is either some part of Can∣nada,some great lake, or some inlet of some sea that falleth into the South sea. These Massawomekes are a great nation and very populous. For the heads of all those ri∣vers, especially the Pattawomekes, the Pautuxuntes, the Sasquesa•anocks, the Tock∣woughes are continually tormented by them: of whose crueltie, they generally com∣plained, and very importunate they were with me, and my company to free them from these tormentors. To this purpose they offered food, conduct, assistance, and continuall subiection. Which I concluded to effect. But the councell then pre∣sent emulating my successe, would not thinke it fit to spare me fortie men to be haz∣zarded in those vnknowne regions, having passed (as before was spoken of) but with 12, an• so was lost that opportunitie. Seaven boats full of these Massawomekes wee encountred at the head of the Bay; whose Targets, Baskets, Swords, Tobaccopipes, Platters, Bowes, and Arrowes, and every thing shewed, they much exceeded them of our parts, and their dexteritie in their small boats, made of the barkes of trees, sowed with barke and well luted with gumme, argueth that they are seated vpon some great water.

Against all these enemies the Powhatans are constrained sometimes to fight. Their chiefe attempts are by Stratagems, trecheries, or surprisals. Yet the Werowances wo∣men and children they put not to death, but keepe them Captiues. They haue a me∣thod in warre, and for our pleasures they shewed it vs, and it was in this manner performed at Mattapanient.

Having painted and disguised themselues in the fiercest manner they could devise. They divided themselues into two Companies, neare a hundred in a company. The one company called Monacans, the other Powhatans. Either army had their Cap∣taine. These as enemies tooke their stands a musket shot one from another; ranked themselues 15 a breast, and each ranke from another 4 or 5 yards, not in fyle, but in the opening betwixt their fyles. So the Reare could shoot as conveniently as the Front. Having thus pitched the fields: from either part went a messenger with these conditions, that whosoever were vanquished, such as escape vpon their submission in two dayes after should liue, but their wiues and children should be prize for the Conquerours. The messengers were no sooner returned, but they approached in their orders; On each flanke a Serieant, and in the Reare an Officer for Lieutenant, all duly keeping their orders, yet leaping and singing after their accustomed tune, which they onely vse in Warres. Vpon the first flight of arrowes they gaue such hor∣rible shouts and screeches, as so many infernall hell hounds could not haue made them more terrible. When they had spent their arrowes, they ioyned together pre•∣tily, charging and retyring, every ranke seconding other. As they got advantage they catched their enemies by the hayre of the head, and downe he came that was taken. His enemy with his wooden sword seemed to beat out his braines, and still they crept to the Reare, to maintaine the skirmish. The Monacans decreasing, the Powhatans charged them in the forme of a halfe Moone; they vnwilling to be in∣closed, fled all in a troope to their Ambuscadoes, on whom they led them very cun∣ningly. The Monacans disperse themselues among the fresh men, wherevpon the Powhatans retired, with all speed to their seconds; which the Monacans seeing, tooke that advantage to retire againe to their owne battell, and so each returned to their owne quarter. All their actions, voyces, and gestures, both in charging and retiring were so strained to the height of their qualitie and nature, that the strangenesse thereof made it seeme very delightfull.

For their Musicke they vse a thicke Cane, on which they pipe as on a Recorder. For their warres they haue a great deepe platter of wood. They cover the mouth thereof with a skin, at each corner they tie a walnut, which meeting on the backside neere the bottome, with a small rope they twitch them together till it be so tought and stiffe, that they may beat vpon it as vpon a drumme. But their chiefe instru∣ments are Rattles made of small gourds, or Pumpeons shels. Of these they haue Base, Tenor, Countertenor, Meane, and Treble. These mingled with their voyces some∣times twenty or thirtie together, make such a terrible noise as would rather affright, then delight any man. If any great commander arriue at the habitation of a Werow∣ance, they spread a Mat as the Turkes doe a Carpet for him to sit vpon. Vpon another right opposite they sit themselues. Then doe all with a tunable voice of shouting bid him welcome. After this doe two or more of their chiefest men make an Orati∣on, testifying their loue. Which they doe with such vehemency, and so great passi∣ons, that they sweat till they drop, and are so out of breath they can scarce speake. So that a man would take them to be exceeding angry, or stark mad. Such victuall as they haue, they spend freely, and at night where his lodging is appointed, they set a woman fresh painted red with Pocones and oyle, to be his bed-fellow.

Their manner of trading is for copper, beads, and such like, for which they giue such commodities as they haue, as skins, foule, fish, flesh, and their Country Corne. But their victualls are their chiefest riches.

Every spring they make themselues sicke with drinking the iuyce of a roote they call Wighsacan, and water; whereof they powre so great a quantitie, that it purgeth them in a very violent manner; so that in three or foure dayes after, they scarce reco∣ver their former health. Sometimes they are troubled with dropsies, swellings, a∣ches, and such like diseases; for cure whereof they build a Stoue in the forme of a Doue-house with mats, so close that a few coales therein covered with a pot, will make the patient sweat extreamely. For swellings also they vse small peeces of touchwood, in the forme of cloues, which pricking on the griefe they burne close to the flesh, and from thence draw the corruption with their mouth. With this roote Wighsacan they ordinarily heale greene wounds. But to scarrifie a swelling, or make incision, their best instruments are some splinted stone. Old vlcers, or putri∣fied hurts are seldome seene cured amongst them. They haue many professed Phi∣sicians, who with their charmes and Rattles, with an infernall rout of words and actions, will seeme to sucke their inward griefe from their navels, or their grieued places; but of our Chirurgians they were so conceited, that they beleeued any Plaister would heale any hurt.


But ’tis not alwayes in Phisicians skill,
To heale the Patient that is sicke and ill:
For sometimes sicknesse on the Patients part,
Proues stronger farre then all Phisicians art.

Of their Religion.

THere is yet in Virginia no place discovered to be so Savage, in which they haue not a Religion, Deere, and Bow, and Arrowes. All things that are a∣ble to doe them hurt beyond their prevention, they adore with their kinde of divine worship; as the fire, water, lightning, thunder, our Ordnance, pee∣ces, horses, &c. But their chiefe God they worship is the Devill. Him they call Okee, and serue him more of feare then loue. They say they haue conference with him, and fashion themselues as neare to his shape as they can imagine. In their Temples they haue his image euill favouredly carved, and then painted and adorned with chaines of copper, and beads, and covered with a skin, in such manner as the defor∣mitie may well suit with such a God. By him is commonly the sepulcher of their Kings. Their bodies are first bowelled, then dried vpon hurdles till they be very dry, and so about the most of their ioynts and necke they hang bracelets, or chaines of copper, pearle, and such like, as they vse to weare, their inwards they stuffe with copper beads, hatchets, and such trash. Then lappe they them very carefully in white skins, and so rowle them in mats for their winding sheets. And in the Tombe which is an arch made of mats, they lay them orderly. What remaineth of this kinde of wealth their Kings haue, they set at their feet in baskets. These Temples and bodies are kept by their Priests.

For their ordinary burials, they dig a deepe hole in the earth with sharpe stakes, and the corpse being lapped in skins and mats with their iewels, they lay them vpon stickes in the ground, and so cover them with earth. The buriall ended, the women being painted all their faces with blacke cole and oyle, doe sit twenty-foure houres in the houses mourning and lamenting by turnes, with such yelling and howling, as may expresse their great passions.

In every Territory of a Werowance is a Temple and a Priest, two or three or more. Their principall Temple or place of superstition is at Vitamussack at Pamavnk•e, neare vnto which is a house, Temple, or place of Powhatans.

Vpon the top of certaine red sandy hils in the woods, there are three great houses filled with images of their Kings, and Devils, and Tombes of their Predecessors. Those houses are neare sixtie foot in length built arbour-wise, after their building. This place they count so holy as that but the Priests & Kings dare come into them; nor the Salvages dare not goe vp the river in boats by it, but they solemnly cast some peece of copper, white beads, or Pocones into the river, for feare their Okee should be offended and revenged of them.


Thus, Feare was the first their Gods begot:
Till feare began, their Gods were not.

In this place commonly are resident seauen Priests. The chiefe differed from the rest in his ornaments, but inferior Priests could hardly be knowne from the com∣mon people, but that they had not so many holes in their eares to hang their iewels at. The ornaments of the chiefe Priest were certaine attires for his head made thus. They tooke a dosen, or 16, or more snakes skins and stuffed them with mosse, and of Weesels and other Vermines skins a good many. All these they tie by their tailes, so as all their tailes meete in the toppe of their head like a great Tassell. Round about this Tassell is as it were a crowne of feathers, the skins hang round about his head, necke, and shoulders, and in a manner cover his face. The faces of all their Priests are painted as vgly as they can devise, in their hands they had every one his Rattle, some base, some smaller. Their devotion was most in songs, which the chiefe Priest be∣ginneth and the rest followed him, sometimes he maketh invocations with broken sentences by starts and strange passions, and at every pause, the rest giue a short groane.

Thus seeke they in deepe foolishnesse,

To climbe the height of happinesse.

It could not be perceiued that they keepe any day as more holy then other; But onely in some great distresse of want, feare of enemies, times of triumph and gathe∣ring together their fruits, the whole Country of men, women, and children come together to solemnities. The manner of their devotion is, sometimes to make a great fire, in the house or fields, and all to sing and dance about it with Rattles and shouts together, foure or fiue houres. Sometimes they set a man in the midst, and about him they dance and sing, he all the while clapping his hands, as if he would keepe time, and after their songs and dauncings ended they goe to •heir Feasts.

Through God begetting feare,

Mans blinded minde did reare
A hell-god to the ghosts;
A heaven-god to the hoasts;
Yea God vnto the Seas:
Feare did create all these.

They haue also divers coniurations,one they made when I was their prisoner; of which hereafter you shall reade at large.

They haue also certaine Altar stones they call Pawcorances, but these stand from their Temples, some by their houses, others in the woods and wildernes•es, where they haue had any extraordinary accident, or incounter. And as you travell, at those stones they will tell you the cause why they were there erected, which from age to age they instruct their children, as their best records of antiquities. Vpon these they offer bloud, Deere suet, and Tobacco. This they doe when they returne from the Warres, from hunting, and vpon many other occasions. They haue also another su∣perstition that they vse in stormes, when the waters are rough in the Rivers and Sea coasts. Their Coniurers runne to the water sides, or passing in their boats, after ma∣ny hellish outcryes and invocations, they cast Tobacco, Copper, Pocones, or such trash into the water, to pacific that God whom they thinke to be very angry in those stormes. Before their dinners and suppers the better sort will take the first bit, and cast it in the fire, which is all the grace they are knowne to vse.

In some part of the Country they haue yearely a sacrifice of children. Such a one was at Quiyoughcohanock some ten myles from Iames Towne, and thus performed. Fifteene of the properest young boyes, betweene ten and fifteene yeares of age they painted white. Having brought them forth, the people spent the forenoon• in dan∣cing and singing about them with Rattles. In the afternoone they put those children to the roote of a tree. By them all the men stood in a guard, every one having a Ba∣stinado in his hand, made of reeds bound together. This made a lane betweene them all along, through which there were appointed fiue young men to fetch these chil∣dren: so every one of the fiue went through the guard to fetch a childe each after o∣ther by turnes, the guard fiercely beating them with their Bastinadoes, and they pa∣tiently enduring and receiuing all▪ defending the children with their naked bodies from the vnmercifull blowes, that pay them soundly, though the children escape. All this while the women weepe and cry out very passionately, prouiding mats, skins, mosse, and dry wood, as things fitting their childrens funerals. After the chil∣dren were thus passed the guard, the guard tore down the trees, branches & boughs, with such violence that they rent the body, and made wreaths for their heads, or be∣decked their hayre with the leaues. What els was done with the children, was not seene, but they were all cast on a heape, in a valley as dead, where th•y made a great feast for all the company. The Werowance being demanded the meaning of •his sacri∣fice, answered that the children were not all dead, but that the Okee or Divell did sucke the bloud from their left breast, who chanced to be his by lot, till they were dead, but the rest were kept in the wildernesse by the young men till nine moneths were expired, during which time they must not converse with any, and of these were made their Priests and Coniurers. This sacrifice they held to be so necessary, that if they should omit it, their Okee or Devill, and all their other Quiyoughcosughes, which are their other Gods, would let them haue no Deere, Turkies, Corne, nor fish, and yet besides, he would make a great slaughter amongst them.

They thinke that their Werowances and Priests which they also esteeme Quiyough∣cosughes, when they are dead, doe goe beyond the mountaines towards the setting of the sunne, and ever remaine there in forme of their Okee, with their heads pain∣ted with oyle and Pocones, finely trimmed with feathers, and shall haue beads, hat∣chets, copper, and Tobacco, doing nothing but dance and sing, with all their Pre∣decessors. But the common people they suppose shall not liue after death, but rot in their graues like dead dogs.

To divert them from this blind Idolatry, we did our best endevours, chiefly with the Werowance of Quiyoughcohanock, whose devotion, apprehension, and good dis∣position, much exceeded any in those Countries, with whom although we could not as yet prevaile, to forsake his false Gods, yet this he did beleeue that our God as much exceeded theirs, as our Gunnes did their Bowes & Arrowes, and many times did send to me to Iames Towne, intreating me to pray to my God for raine, for their Gods would not send them any. And in this lamentable ignorance doe these poore soules sacrifice themselues to the Devill, not knowing their Creator; and we had not language sufficient, so plainly to expresse it as make them vnderstand it; which God grant they may.


For, Religion ’tis that doth distinguish vs,
From their bruit humor, well we may it know;
That can with vnderstanding argue thus,
Our God is truth, but they cannot doe so.

Of the manner of the Virginians Government.

ALthough the Country people be very barbarous, yet haue they amongst them such government, as that their Magistrates for good commanding, and their people for due subiection, and obeying, excell many places that would be counted very civill. The forme of their Common-wealth is a Mo∣narchicall government, one as Emperour ruleth ouer many Kings or Governours. Their chiefe ruler is called Powhatan, and taketh his name of his principall place of dwelling called Powhatan. But his proper name is Wahunsonacock. Some Countries he hath which haue beene his ancestors, and came vnto him by inheritance, as the Country called Powhatan, Arrohateck, Appamatuck, Pamavnkee, Youghtanund, and Mattapanient. All the rest of his Territories expressed in the Mappe, they report haue beene his severall Conquests. In all his ancient inheritances, he hath houses built after their manner like arbours, some 30. some 40. yards long, and at every house provision for his entertainement according to the time. At Werowcomocoon the Northside of the river Pamavnkee, was his residence, when I was delivered him prisoner, some 14 myles from Iames Towne, where for the most part, he was resi∣dent, but at last he tooke so little pleasure in our neare neighbourhood, that he re∣tired himselfe to Orapakes, in the desert betwixt Chickahaman•a and Youghtanund. He is of personage a tall well proportioned man, with a sower looke, his head som∣what gray, his beard so thinne, that it seemeth none at all, his age neare sixtie; of a very able and hardy body to endure any labour. About his person ordinarily atten∣deth a guard of 40 or 50 of the tallest men his Country doth afford. Every night vpon the foure quarters of his house are foure Sentinels, each from other a flight shoot, and at every halfe houre one from the Corps du guard doth hollow, shaking his lips with his finger betweene them; vnto whom every Sentinell doth answer round from his stand: if any faile, they presently send forth an officer that beateth him ex∣treamely.

A myle from Orapakes in a thicket of wood, he hath a house in which he keepeth his kinde of Treasure, as skinnes, copper, pearle, and beads, which he storeth vp a∣gainst the time of his death and buriall. Here also is his store of red paint for oynt∣ment, bowes and arrowes, Targets and clubs. This house is fiftie or sixtie yards in length, frequented onely by Priests. At the foure corners of this house stand foure Images as Sentinels, one of a Dragon, another a Beare, the third like a Leopard, and the fourth like a giantlike man, all made evill favouredly, according to their best workemanship.

He hath as many women as he will, whereof when he lieth on his bed, one sitteth at his head, and another at his feet, but when he sitteth, one sitteth on his right hand and another on his left. As he is weary of his women, he bestoweth them on those that best deserue them at his hands. When he dineth or suppeth, one of his women before and after meat, bringeth him water in a wooden platter to wash his hands. Another waiteth with a bunch of feathers to wipe them in stead of a Towell, and the feathers when he hath wiped are dryed againe. His kingdomes descend not to his sonnes nor children, but first to his brethren, whereof he hath 3. namely, Opit∣chapan, Opechancanough, and Catataugh, and after their decease to his sisters. First to the eldest sister, then to the rest, and after them to the heires male or female of the el∣dest sister, but never to the heires of the males.

He nor any of his people vnderstand any letters, whereby to write or reade, onely the lawes whereby he ruleth is custome. Yet when he listeth his will is a law and must be obeyed: not onely as a King, but as halfe a God they esteeme him. His in∣feriour Kings whom they call Werowances, are tyed to rule by customes, and haue power of life and death at their command in t•at nature. But this word Werowance, which we call and construe for a King, is a common word, whereby they call all commanders: for they haue but few words in their language, and but few occasions to vse any officers more then one commander, which commonly they call Werow∣ance, or Caucorouse, which is Captaine. They all know their severall lands, and ha∣bitations, and limits, to fish, soule, or hunt in, but they hold all of their great We∣rowance Powhatan, vnto whom they pay tribute of skinnes, beads, copper, pearle, deere, turkies, wild beasts, and corne. What he commandeth they dare not disobey in the least thing. It is strange to see with what great feare and adoration, all these people doe obey this Powhatan. For at his feet they present whatsoever he comman∣deth, and at the least frowne of his brow, their greatest spirits will tremble with feare: and no marvell, for he is very terrible & tyrannous in punishing such as offend him. For example,he caused certaine malefactors to be bound hand and foot, then ha∣ving of many fires gathered great store of burning coales, they rake these coales round in the forme of a cockpit, and in the midst they cast the offenders to broyle to death. Sometimes he causeth the heads of them that offend him, to be laid vpon the altar or sacrificing stone, and one with clubbes beats out their braines. When he would punish any notorious enemy or malefactor, he causeth him to be tyed to a tree, and with Mussell shels or reeds, the executioner cutteth off his ioynts one after another, ever casting what they cut of into the fire; then doth he proceed with shels and reeds to case the skinne from his head and face; then doe they rip his belly and so burne him with the tree and all. Thus themselues reported they executed George Cassen. Their ordinary correction is to beate them with cudgels. We haue seene a man kneeling on his knees, and at Powhatans command, two men haue beate him on the bare skin, till he hath fallen senselesse in a sound, and yet never cry nor complai∣ned. And he made a woman for playing the whore, sit vpon a great stone, on her bare breech twenty-foure houres, onely with corne and water, every three dayes, till nine dayes were past, yet he loued her exceedingly: notwithstanding there are com∣mon whores by profession.

In the yeare 1608, he surprised the people of Payankatank his neare neighbours and subiects. The occasion was to vs vnknowne, but the manner was thus. First he sent divers of his men as to lodge amongst them that night, then the Ambuscadoes environed all their houses, and at the houre appointed, they all fell to the spoyle, twenty-foure men they slew, the long haire of the one side of their heads, with the skinne cased off with shels or reeds, they brought away. They surprised also the women, and the children, and the Werowance. All these they presented to Powhatan. The Werowance, women and children became his prisoners, and doe him service. The lockes of haire with their skinnes he hanged on a line betwixt two trees. And thus he made ostentation of his triumph at Werowocomoco, where he intended to haue done as much to mee and my company.

And this is as much as my memory can call to minde worthy of note; which I haue purposely collected, to satisfie my friends of the true worth and qualitie of Virginia. Yet some bad natures will not sticke to slander the Countrey, that will slovenly spit at all things, especially in company where they can finde none to con∣tradict them. Who though they were scarce en•r ten myles from Iames Towne, or at the most but at the falles; yet holding it a great disgrace that amongst so much action, their actions were nothing, exclaime of all things, though they never ad∣ventured to know any thing; nor euer did any thing but devoure the fruits of other mens labours. Being for most part of such tender educations, and small experience in Martiall accidents, because they found not English Cities, nor such faire houses, nor at their owne wishes any of their accustomed dainties, with feather beds and downe pillowes, Tavernes and Alehouses in every breathing place, neither such plentie of gold and silver and dissolute libertie, as they expected, had little or no care or any thing, but to pamper their bellies, to fly away with our Pinnaces, or procure their meanes to returne for England. For the Country was to them a misery, a ruine, a death, a hell, and their reports here, and their actions there according.

Some other there were that had yearely stipends to passe to and againe for trans∣portation: who to keepe the mysterie of the businesse in themselues, though they had neither time nor meanes to know much of themselues; yet all mens actions or relations they so formally tuned to the temporizing times simplicitie, as they could make their ignorances seeme much more, then all the true actors could by their experience. And those with their great words deluded the world with such strange promises, as abused the businesse much worse then the rest. For the busi∣nesse being builded vpon the foundation of their fained experience, the planters, the money and meanes haue still miscarried: yet they ever returning, and the planters so farre absent, who could contradict their excuses? which, still to maintaine their vaine glory and estimation, from time to time haue vsed such diligence as made them passe for truths, though nothing more false. And that the adventurers might be thus abused, let no man wonder; for the wisest liuing is soonest abused by him that hath a faire tongue and a dissembling heart.

There were many in Virginia meerely proiecting, verball, and idle contemplators, and those so devoted to pure idlenesse, that though they had liued two or three yeares in Virginia, lordly, necessitie it selfe could not compell them to passe the Pen∣insula, or Pallisadoes of Iames Towne, and those witty spirits, what would they not affirme in the behalfe of our transporters, to get victuall from their ships, or obtaine their good words in England, to get their passes. Thus from the clamors, and the ignorance of false informers, are sprung those disasters that sprung in Virginia: and our ingenious verbalists were no lesse plague to vs in Virginia, then the Locusts to the Egyptians. For the labour of twentie or thirtie of the best onely preserved in Christianitie by their industry, the idle livers of neare two hundred of the rest: who liuing neere ten moneths of such naturall meanes, as the Country naturally of it selfe afforded, notwithstanding all this, and the worst fury of the Salvages, the extremitie of sicknesse, mutinies, faction, ignorances, and want of victuall; in all that time I lost but seaven or eight men, yet subiected the salvages to our desired obedience, and receiued contribution from thirtie fiue of their Kings, to protect and assist them against any that should assault them, in which order they continued true and faithfull, and as subiects to his Maiestie, so long after as I did governe there, vntill I left the Countrey: since, how they haue revolted, the Countrie lost, and a∣gaine replanted, and the businesses hath succeded from time to time, I referre you to the relations of them returned from Virginia, that haue beene more diligent in such Observations.

Iohn Smith writ this with his owne hand.

Because many do desire to know the manner of their Language, I have inserted these few words.

  • KA katorawines yowo. What call you this.
  • Nemarough, a man.
  • Crenepo, a woman.
  • Marowanchesso, a boy.
  • Yehawkans, Houses.
  • Matchcores, Skins, or garments.
  • Mockasins, Shooes.
  • Tussan, Beds. Pokatawer, Fire.
  • Attawp, A bow. Attonce, Arrowes.
  • Monacookes, Swords.
  • Aumouhhowgh, A Target.
  • Pawcussacks, Gunnes.
  • Tomahacks, Axes.
  • Tockahacks, Pickaxes.
  • Pamesacks, Kniues.
  • Accowprets, Sheares.
  • Pawpecones, Pipes. Mattassin, Copper
  • Vssawassin, Iron, Brasse, Silver, or any white mettall. Musses, Woods.
  • Attasskuss, Leaues, weeds, or grasse.
  • Chepsin, Land. Shacquohocan. A stone.
  • Wepenter, A cookold.
  • Suckahanna, Water. Noughmass, Fish.
  • Copotone, Sturgeon.
  • Weghshaughes, Flesh.
  • Sawwehone, Bloud.
  • Netoppew, Friends.
  • Marrapough, Enemies.
  • Maskapow, the worst of the enemies.
  • Mawchick chammay, The best of friends
  • Casacunnakack, peya quagh acquintan vttasantasough, In how many daies will there come hither any more English Ships.

Their Numbers

  • Necut, 1. Ningh, 2.Nuss, 3. Yowgh, 4.Paranske, 5.Comotinch, 6. Toppawoss, 7 Nusswash, 8.Kekatawgh, 9. Kaskeke 10 They count no more but by tennes as followeth.
  • Case, how many.
  • Ninghsapooeksku, 20.
  • Nussapooeksku, 30.
  • Yowghapooeksku, 40.
  • Parankestassapoocksku, 50.
  • Comatinchtassapooeksku, 60.
  • Nussswashtassapooeksku, 70.
  • Kekataughtassapooeksku, 90.
  • Necuttoughtysinough, 100.
  • Necuttwevnquaough, 1000.
  • Rawcosowghs, Dayes.
  • Keskowghes, Sunnes.
  • Toppquough. Nights.
  • Nepaww•showghs, Moones.
  • Pawpaxsoughes, Yeares.
  • Pummahumps, Starres.
  • Osies, Heavens.
  • Okees, Gods.
  • Quiyoughcosoughs, Pettie Gods, and their affinities.
  • Righcomoughes, Deaths.
  • Kekughes, Liues.
  • Mowchick woyawgh tawgh •oeragh kaqueremecher, I am very hungry? what shall I eate?
  • Tawnor nehiegh Powhatan, Where dwels Powhatan.
  • Mache, nehiegh yourowgh, Orapaks. Now he dwels a great way hence at Orapaks.
  • Vittapitchewayne anpechitchs nehaw∣per Werowacomoco, You lie, he staid ever at Werowacomoco.
  • Kator nehiegh mattagh neer vttapit∣chewayne, Truely he is there I doe not lie.
  • Spaughtynere keragh werowance maw∣marinough k•katē wawgh peyaquaugh. Run you then to the King Mawma∣rynough and bid him come hither.
  • Vtteke, e peya weyack wighwhip, Get you gone, & come againe quickly.
  • Kekaten Pokahontas patiaquagh niugh tanks manotyens neer mowchick raw∣renock audowgh, Bid Pokahontas bring hither two little Baskets, and I will giue her white Beads to make her a Chaine.



C : S Their triumph about him C: Smith bound to a tree to be shott to death 1602
C. S. How they tooke him prisoner in the Oaze 1607 C.S. C. Smith bindeth a saluage to his arme, fighteth with the King of Pamaunkee and all his company, and slew 3 of them.
C: Smith takes the King of Paspahegh prisoner. Ao. 1609.
A Coniurer.
Their Idoll
A priest
Their Coniuration about C: Smith 160•
A description of part of the ad∣ventures of Cap: Smith in Virginia.
A state of 10 Leau•es. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Graven and extracted out of ye generall history of Virginia, New England, and Som̄er Ises, by Robert Vaughan.
C. Smith taketh the King of Pamavnkee prisoner 1608
The Countrey wee now call Virginia beginneth at Cape Henry aistant from Roanoack 60 miles, where was Sr. Walter Raleigh’s psantation. and because the people differ very little from t•em of Powhatan in any thing, I have inserted those figures in this place because of the conveniency.
C.S. King Powhatan com̄ands C. Smith to be slayne, his daughter Pokahontas begge his life his thankfullness and how he subiected 30 of their kings. reade • history.
printed by Iames Reeve

The third Booke.

THE PROCEEDINGS AND ACCIDENTS OF The English Colony in Ʋirginia, Extracted from the Authors fol∣lowing, by WILLIAM SIMONS, Doctour of Divinitie.


[ 1606] IT might well be thought, a Countrie so faire (as Virgi∣nia is) and a people so tractable, would long ere this haue beene quietly possessed, to the satisfaction of the adventurers, & the eternizing of the memory of those that effected it. But because all the world doe see a defailement; this following Treatise shall giue satisfa∣ction to all indifferent Readers, how the businesse hath bin carried: where no doubt they will easily vnderstand and answer to their question, how it came to passe there was no better speed and successe in those proceedings.

Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll, one of the first movers of this plantation, having many yeares solicited many of his friends, but found small assistants; at last prevai∣led with some Gentlemen, as Captaine Iohn Smith, Mr Edward-maria Wingfield, Mr Robert Hunt, and divers others, who depended a yeare vpon his proiects, but nothing could be effected, till by their great charge and industrie, it came to be ap∣prehended by certaine of the Nobilitie, Gentry, and Marchants, so that his Maiestie by his letters patents, gaue commission for establishing Councels, to direct here; and to governe, and to execute there. To effect this, was spent another yeare, and by that, three ships were provided, one of 100 Tuns, another of 40. and a Pinnace of 20. The transportation of the company was committed to Captaine Christopher New∣port, a Marriner well practised for the Westerne parts of America. But their orders for government were put in a box, not to be opened, nor the governours knowne vntill they arrived in Virginia.

On the 19 of December, 1606. we set sayle from Blackwall, but by vnprosperous winds, were kept six weekes in the sight of England; all which time, Mr Hunt our Preacher, was so weake and sicke, that few expected his recovery. Yet although he were but twentie myles from his habitation (the time we were in the Downes) and notwithstanding the stormy weather, nor the scandalous imputations (of some few, little better then Atheists, of the greatest ranke amongst vs) suggested against him, all this could never force from him so much as a seeming desire to leaue the busines, but preferred the service of God, in so good a voyage, before any affection to con∣test with his godlesse foes, whose disasterous designes (could they haue prevailed) had even then overthrowne the businesse, so many discontents did then arise, had he not with the water of patience, and his godly exhortations (but chiefly by his true devoted examples) quenched those flames of envie, and dissention.

We watered at the Canaries, we traded with the Salvages at Dominica; three weekes we spent in refreshing our selues amongst these west-India Isles; in Gwardalupa we found a bath so hot, as in it we boyled Porck as well as over the fire. And at a little Isle called Monica, we tooke from the bushes with our hands, neare two hogsh-heads full of Birds in three or foure houres. In Mevis, Mona, and the Virgin Isles, we spent some time, where, with a lothsome beast like a Crocodil, called a Gwayn, Tortoises, Pellicans, Parrots, and fishes, we daily feasted. Gone from thence in search of Virginia, the company was not a little discomforted, seeing the Marriners had 3 dayes passed their reckoning and found no land, so that Captaine Ratliffe (Cap∣taine of the Pinnace) rather desired to beare vp the helme to returne for England, then make further search. But God the guider of all good actions, forcing them by an extreame storme to hull all night, did driue them by his providence to their desi∣red Port, beyond all their expectations, for never any of them had seene that coast. The first land they made they called Cape Henry; where thirtie of them recreating themselues on shore, were assaulted by fiue Salvages, who hurt two of the English very dangerously. That night was the box opened, and the orders read, in which Bartholomew Gosnoll, Iohn Smith, Edward Wingfield, Christopher Newport, Iohn Rat∣liffe, Iohn Martin, and George Kendall, were named to be the Councell, and to choose a President amongst them for a yeare, who with the Councell should governe. Mat∣ters of moment were to be examined by a Iury, but determined by the maior part of the Councell, in which the President had two voyces. Vntill the 13 of May they sought a place to plant in, then the Councell was sworne, Mr Wingfield was chosen President, and an Oration made, why Captaine Smith was not admitted of the Coun∣cell as the rest.

Now falleth every man to worke, the Councell contriue the Fort, the rest cut downe trees to make place to pitch their Tents; some provide clapbord to relade the ships, some make gardens, some nets, &c. The Salvages often visited vs kindly. The Presidents overweening iealousie would admit no exercise at armes, or fortifi∣cation, but the boughs of trees cast together in the forme of a halfe moone by the extraordinary paines and diligence of Captaine Kendall. Newport, Smith, and twen∣tie others, were sent to discover the head of the river: by divers small habitations they passed, in six dayes they arrived at a Towne called Powhatan, consisting of some twelue houses, pleasantly seated on a hill; before it three fertile Isles, about it many of their cornefields, the place is very pleasant, and strong by nature, of this place the Prince is called Powhatan, and his people Powhatans, to this place the river is naviga∣ble: but higher within a myle, by reason of the Rockes and Isles, there is not pas∣sage for a small Boat, this they call the Falles, the people in all parts kindly intrea∣ted them, till being returned within twentie myles of Iames towne, they gaue iust cause of iealousie, but had God not blessed the discoverers otherwise then those at the Fort, there had then beene an end of that plantation; for at the Fort, where they arrived the next day, they found 17 men hurt, and a boy slaine by the Salvages, and had it not chanced a crosse barre shot from the Ships strooke downe a bough from a tree amongst them, that caused them to retire, our men had all beene slaine, being securely all at worke, and their armes in dry fats.

Herevpon the President was contented the Fort should be pallisadoed, the Ord∣nance mounted, his men armed and exercised, for many were the assaults, and am∣buscadoes of the Salvages, & our men by their disorderly stragling were often hurt, when the Salvages by the nimblenesse of their heeles well escaped. What toyle we had, with so small a power to guard our workemen adayes, watch all night, resist our enemies, and effect our businesse, to relade the ships, cut downe trees, and pre∣pare the ground to plant our Corne, &c, I referre to the Readers consideration. Six weekes being spent in this manner, Captaine Newport (who was hired onely for our transportation) was to returne with the ships. Now Captaine Smith, who all this time from their departure from the Canaries was restrained as a prisoner vpon the scandalous suggestions of some of the chiefe (envying his repute) who fained he in∣tended to vsurpe the government, murther the Councell, and make himselfe King, that his confederats were dispersed in all the three ships, and that divers of his con∣federats that revealed it, would affirme it, for this he was committed as a prisoner: thirteene weekes he remained thus suspected, and by that time the ships should re∣turne they pretended out of their commisserations, to referre him to the Councell in England to receiue a check, rather then by particulating his designes make him so odious to the world, as to touch his life, or vtterly overthrow his reputation. But he so much scorned their charitie, and publikely defied the vttermost of their cruel∣tie, he wisely prevented their policies, though he could not suppresse their envies, yet so well he demeaned himselfe in this businesse, as all the company did see his innocency, and his adversaries malice, and those suborned to accuse him, accused his accusers of subornation; many vntruthes were alledged against him; but being so apparently disproved, begat a generall hatred in the hearts of the company against such vniust Commanders, that the President was adiudged to giue him 200l. so that all he had was seized vpon, in part of satisfaction, which Smith presently returned to the Store for the generall vse of the Colony. Many were the mischiefes that daily sprung from their ignorant (yet ambitious) spirits; but the good Doctrine and exhortation of our Preacher Mr Hunt reconciled them, and caused Captaine Smith to be admitted of the Councell; the next day all receiued the Communion,the day following the Salvages voluntarily desired peace, and Captaine Newport returned for England with newes; leaving in Virginia 100. the 15 of Iune 1607.

By this obserue;

Good men did ne’r their Countries ruine bring.
But when evill men shall iniuries beginne;
Not caring to corrupt and violate
The iudgements-seats for their owne Lucr’s sake:
Then looke that Country cannot long haue peace,
Though for the present it haue rest and ease.

[ 1607] The names of them that were the first Planters, were these following.

  • Councel.
    • Mr Edward Maria Wingfield.
    • Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll.
    • Captaine Iohn Smith.
    • Captaine Iohn Ratliffe.
    • Captaine Iohn Martin.
    • Captaine George Kendall.
  • Gent.
    • Mr Robert Hunt Preacher.
    • Mr George Percie.
    • Anthony Gosnoll.
    • George Flower.
    • Cap. Gabriell Archer.
    • Robert Fenton.
    • Robert Ford.
    • William Bruster.
    • Edward Harrington.
    • Dru Pickhouse.
    • Thomas Iacob.
    • Iohn Brookes.
    • Ellis Kingston.
    • Thomas Sands.
    • Beniamin Beast.
    • Iehu Robinson.
    • Thomas Mouton.
    • Eustace Clovill.
    • Stephen Halthrop.
    • Kellam Throgmorton.
    • Edward Morish.
    • Nathaniell Powell.
    • Edward Browne.
    • Robert Bebethland.
    • Iohn Penington.
    • Ieremy Alicock.
    • George Walker.
    • Thomas Studley.
    • Richard Crofts.
    • Nicholas Houlgraue.
    • Thomas Webbt.
    • Iohn Waller.
    • Iohn Short.
    • William Tankard.
    • William Smethes.
    • Francis Snarsbrough.
    • Richard Simons.
    • Edward Brookes.
    • Richard Dixon.
    • Iohn Martin.
    • Roger Cooke.
    • Anthony Gosnold.
    • Tho: Wotton, Chirurg.
    • Iohn Stevenson.
    • Thomas Gore.
    • Henry Adling.
    • Francis Midwinter.
    • Richard Frith.
  • Car∣pen∣ters.
    • William Laxon.
    • Edward Pising.
    • Thomas Emry.
    • Robert Small.
  • La∣bou∣rers.
    • Iohn Laydon.
    • William Cassen.
    • George Cassen.
    • Thomas Cassen.
    • William Rodes.
    • William White.
    • Old Edward.
    • Henry Tavin.
    • George Goulding.
    • Iohn Dods.
    • William Iohnson.
    • William Vnger.
  • Iam: Read, Blacksmith.
  • Ionas Profit, Sailer.
  • Tho: Cowper, Barber.
  • Will: Garret, Bricklayer.
  • Edward Brinto, Mason.
  • William Loue, Taylor.
  • Nic: Scot, Drum.
  • Wil: Wilkinson, Chirurg.
  • Samuell Collier, boy.
  • Nat. Pecock, boy.
  • Iames Brumfield, boy.
  • Richard Mutton, boy.

With divers others to the number of 100.


What happened till the first supply.

Being thus left to our fortunes, it fortuned that within ten days scarce ten amongst us could either go, or well stand, such extreme weakness and sickness oppressed us. And thereat none need marvel, if they consider the cause and reason, which was this; whilest the ships stayed, our allowance was somewhat bettered, by a daily proportion of biscuit, which the sailors would pilfer to sell, give, or exchange with us, for money, Sassafras, furs, or love. But when they departed, there remained neither tavern, beer▪house, nor place of relief, but the common Kettell. Had we been as free from all sins as gluttony, and drunkeness, we might have been canonized for Saints; But our President would never have been admitted, for ingrossing to his private, Oatmeal, Sack, Oil, Aquavitae, Beef, Eggs, or what not, but the Kettell; that indeed he allowed equally to be distributed, and that was half a pint of wheat, and as much barley boiled with water for a man a day, and this having fried some 26 weeks in the ship’s hold, contained as many worms as graines; so that we might truely call it rather so much bran then corn, our drink was water, our lodgings Castles in the air: with this lodging and diet, our extreme toil in bearing and planting pallisades, so strained and bruised us, and our continual labour in the extremity of the heat had so weakened us, as were cause sufficient to have made us as miserable in our native Country, or any other place in the world. From May, to September, those that escaped, lived upon Sturgeon, and Sea-crabs, fifty in this time we buried, the rest seeing the President’s projects to escape these miseries in our Pinnace by flight (who all this time had neither felt want nor sickness) so moved our dead spirits, as we deposed him; and established Ratcliffe in his place, (Gosnoll being dead) Kendall deposed, Smith newly recovered, Martin and Ratcliffe was by his care preserved and relieved, and the most of the soldiers recovered, with the skilfull diligence of Mr Thomas Wotton our surgeon general. But now was all our provision spent, the Sturgeon gone, all helps abandoned, each hour expecting the fury of the Savages; when God the patron of all good endeavours, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the Savages, that they brought such plenty of their fruits, and provision, as no man wanted.

And now where some affirmed it was ill done of the Council to send forth men so badly provided, this incontradictable reason will show them plainly they are too ill advised to nourish such ill conceits; first, the fault of our going was our own, what could be thought fitting or necessary we had, but what we should find, or want, or where we should be, we were all ignorant, and supposing to make our passage in two months, with victual to live, and the advantage of the spring to work; we were at Sea five months, where we both spent our victual and lost the opportunity of the time, and season to plant, by the unskilfull presumption of our ignorant transporters, that understood not at all, what they undertook.

Such actions have ever since the world’s beginning been subiect to such accidents, and every thing of worth is found full of difficulties, but nothing so difficult as to establish a Common-wealth so far remote from men and means, and where men’s minde are so untoward as neither do well themselves, nor suffer others. But to proceed.

The new President and Martin, being little beloved, of weak judgement in dangers, and less industry in peace, committed the managing of all things abroad to Captain Smith: who by his own example, good words, and fair promises, set some to mow, others to bind thatch, some to build houses, others to thatch them, himself always bearing the greatest task for his own share, so that in short time, he provided most of them lodgings, neglecting any for himself. This done, seeing the Savages superfluity begin to decrease (with some of his workemen) shipped himself in the Shallop to search the Country for trade. The want of the language, knowledge to manage his boat without sails, the want of a sufficient power, (knowing the multitude of the Savages) apparel for his men, and other necessaries, were infinite impediments, yet no discouragement. Being but six or seven in company he went down the river to Kecoughtan, where at first they scorned him, as a famished man, and would in derision offer him a handfull of Corn, a piece of bread, for their swords and muskets, and such like proportions also for their apparell. But seeing by trade and courtesy there was nothing to be had, he made bold to try such conclusions as necessitie inforced, though contrary to his Commission: Let fly his muskets, ran his boat on shore, whereat they all fled into the woods. So marching towards their houses, they might see great heaps of corn: much ado he had to restrain his hungry soldiers from present taking of it, expecting as it happened that the Savages would assault them, as not long after they did with a most hideous noise. Sixty or seventy of them, some black, some red, some white, some parti-coloured, came in a square order, singing and dancing out of the woods, with their Okee (which was an Idol made of skins, stuffed with moss, all painted and hung with chains and copper) borne before them: and in this manner being well armed, with Clubs, Targets, Bows and Arrows, they charged the English, that so kindly received them with their muskets loaden with Pistol shot, that down fell their God, and diverse lay sprawling on the ground; the rest fled again to the woods, and ere long sent one of their Quiyoughkasoucks to offer peace, and redeem their Okee. Smith told them, if only six of them would come unarmed and load his boat, he would not only be their friend, but restore them their Okee, and give them Beads, Copper, and Hatchets besides: which on both sides was to their contents performed: and then they brought him Venison, Turkies, wild-foule, bread, and what they had, singing and dancing in sign of friendship till they departed. In his return he discovered the Towne and Country of Warraskoyack.


Thus God unboundlesse by his power,
Made them thus kind, would us devour.

Smith perceiving (notwithstanding their late misery) not any regarded but from hand to mouth (the company being well recovered) caused the Pinnace to be provided with things fitting to get provision for the year following; but in the interim he made 3. or 4. journeys and discovered the people of Chickahamania: yet what he carefully provided the rest carelessly spent. Wingfield and Kendall living in disgrace, seeing all things at randome in the absence of Smith, the companies dislike of their President’s weakness, and their small love to Martin’s never mending sickness, strengthened themselves with the sailors, and other confederates to regain their former credit and authority, or at least such means aboard the Pinnace, (being fitted to sail as Smith had appointed for trade) to alter her course and to go for England. Smith unexpectedly returning had the plot discovered to him, much trouble he had to prevent it, till with store of sakre and musket shot he forced them stay or sinke in the river, which action cost the life of captaine Kendall. These brawles are so disgustfull, as some will say they were better forgotten, yet all men of good judgement will conclude, it were better their baseness should be manifest to the world, then the business bear the scorn and shame of their excused disorders. The President and captain Archer not long after intended also to have abandoned the country, which proiect also was curbed, and suppressed by Smith. The Spaniard never more greedily desired gold then he victual, nor his soldiers more to abandon the Country, then he to keep it. But finding plenty of Corn in the river of Chickahamania where hundreds of Savages in diverse places stood with baskets expecting his coming. And now the winter approaching, the rivers became so covered with swans, geese, duckes, and cranes, that we daily feasted with good bread, Virginia pease, pumpions, and putchamins, fish, fowle, and diverse sorts of wild beasts as fat as we could eat them: so that none of our Tuftasfaty humorists desired to goe for England. But our Comaedies never endured long without a Tragedie; some idle excepti∣ons being muttered against Captaine Smith, for not discovering the head of Chickahamania river, and taxed by the Council, to be too slow in so worthy an attempt. The next voyage he proceeded so far that with much labour by cutting of trees in sunder he made his passage, but when his Barge could pass no farther, he left her in a broad bay out of danger of shot, commanding none should go a shore till his return: himself with two English and two Savages went up higher in a Canoe, but he was not long absent, but his men went a shore, whose want of government, gave both occasion and opportunity to the Savages to surprise one George Cassen, whom they slew, and much failed not to have cut of the boat and all the rest. Smith little dreaming of that accident, being got to the marshes at the rivers head, twenty miles in the desert, had his two men slain (as is supposed) sleeping by the Canowe, whilst himselfe by fowling sought them victuall, who finding he was beset with 200. Savages, two of them he slew, still defending himself with the aid of a Savage his guide, whom he bound to his arm with his garters, and used him as a buckler, yet he was shot in his thigh a little, and had many arrows that stucke in his clothes but no great hurt, till at last they took him prisoner. When this news came to James towne, much was their sorrow for his loss, few expecting what ensued. Six or seven weeks those Barbarians kept him prisoner, many strange triumphs and conjurations they made of him, yet he so demeaned himself amongst them, as he not only diverted them from surprising the Fort, but procured his own liberty, and got himself and his company such estimation amongst them, that those Savages admired him more than their own Quiyouckosucks. The manner how they used and delivered him, is as followeth.

The Savages having drawn from George Cassen whether Captain Smith was gone, prosecuting that oportunity they followed him with. 300. bowmen, conducted by the King of Pamaunkee, who in divisions searching the turnings of the river, found Robinson and Emry by the fire side, those they shot full of arrows and slew. Then finding the Captain as is said, that used the Savage that was his guide as his shield (three of them being slain and diveres other so galled) all the rest would not come near him. Thinking thus to have returned to his boat, regarding them, as he marched, more than his way, slipped up to the middle in an oasie creeke & his Savage with him, yet durst they not come to him till being near dead with cold, he threw away his arms. Then according to their composition they drew him forth and led him to the fire, where his men were slain. Diligently they chafed his benummed limbs. He demanding for their Captain, they shewed him Opechanka∣nough, King of Pamavnkee, to whom he gave a round Ivory double compass Dial. Much they marvailed at the playing of the Fly and Needle, which they could see so plainely, and yet not touch it, because of the glasse that covered them. But when he demonstrated by that Globe-like jewel, the roundness of the earth and skies, the sphere of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, and how the Sue did chase the night round about the world continually; the greatnesse of the Land and Sea, the diversi∣tie of Nations, varietie of complexions, and how we were to them Antipodes, and many other such like matters, they all stood as amazed with admiration. Notwithstanding, within an hour after they tied him to a tree, and as many as could stand about him prepared to shoot him, but the King holding up the Compass in his hand, they all laid downe their Bows and Arrows, and in a triumphant manner led him to Orapaks, where he was after their manner kindly feasted, and well used.

Their order in conducting him was thus; Drawing themselves all in file, the King in the midst had all their Pieces and Swords borne before him. Captain Smith was led after him by three great Savages, holding him fast by each arm: and on each side six went in file with their Arrows nocked. But arriving at the Towne (which was but only thirty or forty hunting houses made of Mats, which they remove as they please, as we our tents) all the women and children staring to behold him, the soldiers nearest all in file performed the form of a Bissom so well as could be; and on each flank, officers as Ser[g]eants to see them keep their orders. A good time they continued this exercise, and then cast themselves in a ring, dancing in such several Postures, and singing and yelling out such hellish notes and screeches; being strangely painted, every one his quiver of Arrows, and at his back a club; on his arm a Fox or an Otter’s skin, or some such matter for his vambrace; their heads and shoulders painted red, with Oil and Pocones mingled together, which Scarlet-like colour made an exceeding handsome shew; his Bow in his hand, and the skin of a Bird with her wings abroad dried, tied on his head, a piece of copper, a white shell, a long feather, with a small rattle growing at the tails of their snakes tied to it, or some such like toy. All this while Smith and the King stood in the midst guarded, as before is said, and after three dances they all departed. Smith they conducted to a long house, where thirty or forty tall fellows did guard him, and ere long more bread and venison was brought him then would have served twenty men, I think his stomack at that time was not very good; what he left they put in baskets and tied over his head. About midnight they set the meat again before him, all this time not one of them would eate a bit with him, till the next morning they brought him as much more, and then did they eat all the old, & reserved the new as they had done the other, which made him think they would fat him to eat him. Yet in this desperate estate to defend him from the cold, one Maocassater brought him his gown, in requital of some beads and toys Smith had given him at his first arrival in Virginia.

Two days after a man would have slain him (but that the guard prevented it) for the death of his son, to whom they conducted him to recover the poor man then breathing his last. Smith told them that at James towne he had a water would do it, if they would let him fetch it, but they would not permit that; but made all the preparations they could to assault James towne, craving his advice, and for recompence he should have life, liberty, land, and women. In part of a Table booke he writ his mind to them at the Fort, what was intended, how they should follow that direction to affright the messengers, and without fail send him such things as he writ for. And an Inventory with them. The difficulty and danger, he told the Savages, of the Mines, great guns, and other Engines exceedingly affrighted them, yet according to his request they went to James towne, in as bitter weather as could be of frost and snow, and within three days returned with an answer.

But when they came to Jame towne, seeing men sally out as he had told them they would, they fled; yet in the night they came again to the same place where he had told them they should receive an answer, and such things as he had promised them, which they found accordingly, and with which they returned with no small expedition, to the wonder of them all that heard it, that he could either divine, or the paper could speak: then they led him to the Youthtanunds, the Mattapanicuts, the Payankatanks, the Nantaughtacunds, and Onawmanients upon the rivers of Rapahanock, and Patawomek, over all those rivers, and back again by diverse other several Nations, to the King’s habitation at Pamaunkee, where they entertained him with most strange and fearful Conjurations;


As if near led to hell,
Amongst the Devil’s to dwell.

Not long after, early in a morning a great fire was made in a long house, and a mat spread on the one side, as on the other, on the one they caused him to sit, and all the guard went out of the house, and presently came skipping in a great grim fellow, all painted over with coal, mingled with oil; and many Snakes and Weasels skins stuffed with moss, and all their tails tied together, so as they met on the crown of his head in a tassel; and round about the tassel was as a Coronet of feathers, the skins hanging round about his head, back, and shoulders, and in a manner covered his face; with a hellish voice and a rattle in his hand. With most strange gestures and passions he began his invocation, and environed the fire with a circle of meal; which done, three more such like devils came rushing in with the like antique tricks, painted half black, half red: but all their eyes were painted white, and some red strokes like Mutchato’s, along their cheeks: round about him those fiends danced a pretty while, and then came in three more as ugly as the rest; with red eyes, and white strokes over their black faces, at last they all sat down right against him; three of them on the one hand of the chief Priest, and three on the other. Then all with their rattles began a song, which ended, the chief Priest laid down five wheat corns: then straining his arms and hands with such violence that he sweat, and his veins swelled, he began a short Oration: at the conclusion they all gave a short groan; and then laid down three grains more. After that, began their song again, and then another Oration, ever laying down so many corns as before, till they had twice encirculed the fire; that done, they took a bunch of little sticks prepared for that purpose, continuing still their devotion, and at the end of every song and Oration, they laid downe a slick betwixt the divisions of Corn. Till night, neither he nor they did either eat or drink, and then they feasted merrily, with the best provisions they could make. Three days they used this Ceremony; the meaning whereof they told him, was to know if he intended them well or no. The circle of meal signified their Country, the circles of corn the bounds of the Sea, and the sticks his Country. They imagined the world to be flat and round, like a trencher, and they in the midst. After this they brought him a bag of gunpowder, which they carefully preserved till the next spring, to plant as they did their corn; because they would be acquainted with the nature of that seed. Opitchapam the King’s brother invited him to his house, where, with as many platters of bread, sole, and wild beasts, as did environ him, he bid him welcome; but not any of them would eat a bit with him, but put up all the remainder in Baskets. At his return to Opechancanoughs, all the King’s women, and their children, flocked about him for their parts, as a due by Custom, to be merry with such fragments.

But his waking mind in hideous dreams did oft see wondrous shapes,
Of bodies strange, and huge in growth, and of stupendous makes.

At last they brought him to Meronocomoco, where was Powhatan their Emperor. Here more than two hundred of those grim Courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had been a monster; till Powhatan and his train had put themselves in their greatest braveries. Before a fire upon a seat like a bedsted, he sat covered with a great robe, made of Rarowcunskinnes [racoon skins], and all the tails hanging by. On either hand did sit a young wench of 16 or 18 years, and along on each side the house, two row of men, and behind them as many women, with all their heads and shoulders painted red; many of their heads bedecked with the white down of Birds; but every one with something: and a great chain of white beads about their necks. At his entrance before the King, all the people gave a great shout. The Queen of Appamatuck was appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another brought him a bunch of feathers, in stead of a Towel to dry them: having feasted him after their best barbarous manner they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan: then as many as could laid hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs, to beatout his brains, Pocahontas the King’s dearest daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms, and laid her own upon his to save him from death: whereat the Emperor was contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and copper; for they thought him as well of all occupations as themselves. For the King himself will make his own robes, shoes, bows, arrows, pots; plant, hunt, or do any thing so well as the rest.


They say he bore a pleasant shew,
But sure his heart was sad.
For who can pleasant be, and rest,
That lives in fear and dread:
And having life suspected, doth
It still suspected lead.

Two days after, Powhatan having disguised himself in the most fearefullest manner he could, caused Capt: Smith to be brought forth to a great house in the woods, and there upon a mat by the fire to be left alone. Not long after from behind a mat that divided the house, was made the most dolefullest noise he ever heard; then Powhatan more like a devil than a man with some two hundred more as black as himself, came unto him and told him now they were friends, and presently he should go to James towne, to send him two great guns, and a grindstone, for which he would give him the Country of Capahowosick, and for ever esteem him as his son Nantaquoud. So to James towne with 12 guides Powhatan sent him. That night they quartered in the woods, he still expecting (as he had done all this long time of his imprisonment) every hour to be put to one death or other: for all their feasting. But almighty God (by his divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern Barbarians with compassion. The next morning betimes they came to the Fort, where Smith having used the Savages with what kindness he could, he shewed Rawhunt, Powhatan’s trusty servant two demi-Culverings & a millstone to carry Powhatan: they found them somewhat too heavy; but when they did see him discharge them, being loaded with stones, among the boughs of a great tree loaded with Isicles, the yee and branches came so tumbling down, that the poor Savages ran away half dead with fear. But at last we regained some conference with them, and gave them such toys; and sent to Powhatan, his women, and children such presents, as gave them in generall full content. Now in James Towne they were all in combustion, the strongest preparing once more to run away with the Pinnace; which with the hazzard of his life, with Sakre falcon and musket shot, Smith forced now the third time to stay or sink. Some no better then they should be, had plotted with the President, the next day to have put him to death by the Leviticall law, for the lives of Robinson and Emry, pretending the fault was his that had led them to their ends: but he quickly took such order with such Lawyers, that he layd them by the heeles till he sent some of them prisoners for England. Now ever once in four or five days, Pocahontas with her attendants, brought him so much provision, that saved many of their lives, that else for all this had starved with hun∣ger.

Thus from numb death our good God sent relief,
The sweet assuager of all other grief.

His relation of the plenty he had seen, especially at Warawocomoco, and of the state and bounty of Powhatan, (which till that time was unknown) so revived their dead spirits (especially the love of Pocahontas) as all mens fear was abandoned. Thus you may see what difficulties still crossed any good endeavour: and the good successe of the business being thus oft brought to the very period of destruction; yet you see by what strange means God hath still delivered it. As for the insufficiency of them admitted in Commission, that error could not be prevented by the Electors; there being no other choice; and all strangers to each others education, quali∣ties, or disposition. And if any deem it a shame to our Nation to have any mention made of those enormities, let them peruse the Histories of the Spaniards Discoveries and Plantations, where they may see how many mutinies, disorders, and dissentions have accompanied them, and crossed their attempts: which being known to be particular mens offences; doth take away the general scorne and contempt, which malice, presumption, covetousnesse, or ignorance might produce; to the scandal and reproach of those, whose actions and valiant resolutions deserve a more worthy respect.

Now whether it had been better for Captain Smith, to have concluded with any of those several projects, to have abandoned the Country, with some ten or twelve of them, who were called the better sort, and have left Mr Hunt our Preacher, Master Anthony Gosnoll, a most honest, worthy, and industrious Gentleman, Master Thomas Wotton, and some 27 others of his Countrymen to the fury of the Savages, famine, and all manner of mischiefs, and inconveniences, (for they were but forty in all to keep possession of this large Country;) or starv himselfe with them for company, for want of lodging: or but adventuring abroad to make them provision, or by his opposition to preserve the action, and save all their lives; I leave to the censure of all honest men to consider. But

We men imagine in our loyalty,

That ’tis all one, or good or bad to be.
But then anon we alter this again,
If happily we feele the sense of paine;
For then we’re turn’d into a mourning vain.
Written by Thomas Studley, the first Cape Merchant in Virginia, Robert Fenton, Edward Harrington, and I. S.

CHAP. III. The Arrivall of the first supply, with their Proceedings, and the Ships returne.

ALL this time our care was not so much to abandon the Countrey; but the Treasurer and Councell in England, were as diligent & carefull to supply vs. Two good ships they sent vs, with neare a hundred men, well furnished with all things could be imagined necessary, both for them and vs; The one commanded by Captaine Newport: the other by Captaine Francis Nelson, an honest man, and an expert Marriner. But such was the lewardnesse of his Ship (that though he was within the sight of Cape Henry) by stormy contrary winds was he forced so farre to Sea, that the West Indies was the next land, for the repaire of his Masts, and reliefe of wood and water. But Newport got in and arrived at Iames Towne, not long after the redemption of Captaine Smith. To whom the Salvages, as is sayd, every other day repaired, with such provisions that sufficiently did serue them from hand to mouth: part alwayes they brought him as Presents from their Kings, or Pocahontas; the rest he as their Market Clarke set the price himselfe, how they should sell: so he had inchanted these poore soules being their prisoner; and now Newport, whom he called his Father arriving, neare as directly as he foretold, they esteemed him as an Oracle, and had them at that submission he might command them what he listed. That God that created all things they knew he adored for his God: they would also in their discourses tearme the God of Captaine Smith.

Thus the Almightie was the bringer on,

The guide, path, terme, all which was God alone.

But the President and Councell so much envied his estimation among the Sal∣vages, (though we all in generall equally participated with him of the good there∣of,) that they wrought it into the Salvages vnderstandings (by their great bounty in giving foure times more for their commodities then Smith appointed) that their greatnesse and authoritie as much exceeded his, as their bountie and liberalitie. Now the arrivall of this first supply so overioyed vs, that wee could not devise too much to please the Marriners. We gaue them libertie to trucke or trade at their plea∣sures. But in a short time it followed, that could not be had for a pound of Cop∣per, which before was sould vs for an ounce: thus ambition and sufferance cut the throat of our trade, but confirmed their opinion of the greatnesse of Capt. New∣port, (wherewith Smith had possessed Powhatan) especially by the great presents Newport often sent him, before he could prepare the Pinnace to goe and visti him: so that this great Savage desired also to see him. A great coyle there was to set him forward. When he went he was accompanied with Captaine Smith, & Mr Scrivener, a very wise vnderstanding Gentleman, newly arrived and admitted of the Councell, with thirtie or fortie choisen men for their guard. Arriving at Werowocomoco, New∣ports conceit of this great Savage bred many doubts and suspitions of trecheries, which Smith to make appeare was needlesse, with twentie men well appointed, vn∣dertooke to encounter the worst that could happen: Knowing

All is but one, and selfe-same hand, that thus

Both one while scourgeth, and that helpeth vs.
  • Nathaniell Powell. Gent.
  • Robert Behethland. Gent.
  • Mitchell •hittiplace. Gent.
  • William •hittiplace. Gent.
  • Anthony Gosnoll. Gent.
  • Richard Wyssin. Gent.
  • Iohn Taverner. Gent.
  • William Dyer. Gent.
  • Thomas Coe. Gent.
  • Thomas Hope. Gent.
  • Anas Todkill. Gent.

These, with nine others (whose names I haue forgotten) comming a-shore, lan∣ded amongst a many of creekes, over which they were to passe such poore bridges, onely made of a few cratches, thrust in the ose, and three or foure poles laid on them, and at the end of them the like, tyed together onely with barkes of trees, that it made them much suspect those bridges were but traps. Which caused Smith to make diverse Salvages goe over first, keeping some of the chiefe as hostage till halfe his men were passed, to make a guard for himselfe and the rest. But finding all things well, by two or three hundred Salvages they were kindly conducted to their towne. Where Powhatan strained himselfe to the vtmost of his greatnesse to enter∣taine them, with great shouts of ioy, Orations of protestations; and with the most plenty of victualls he could provide to feast them. Sitting vpon his bed of mats, his pillow of leather imbrodered (after their rude manner with pearle and white Beads) his attyre a faire robe of skinnes as large as an Irish mantell: at his head and feete a handsome young woman: on each side his house sat twentie of his Concu∣bines, their heads and shoulders painted red, with a great chaine of white beads a∣bout each of their neckes. Before those sat his chiefest men in like order in his ar∣bour-like house, and more then fortie platters of fine bread stood as a guard in two fyles on each side the doore. Foure or fiue hundred people made a guard behinde them for our passage; and Proclamation was made, none vpon paine of death to presume to doe vs any wrong or discourtesie. With many pretty Discourses to re∣new their old acquaintance, this great King and our Captaine spent the time, till the ebbe left our Barge aground. Then renewing their feasts with feares, dauncing and singing, and such like nurth, we quartered that night with Powhatan. The next day Newport came a shore and receiued as much content as those people could giue him: a boy named Thomas Salvage was then giuen vnto Powhatan, whom Newport called his sonne; for whom Powhatan gaue him Namontack his trustie servant, and one of a shrewd, subtill capacitie. Three or foure dayes more we spent in feasting, daun∣cing, and trading, wherein Powhatan carried himselfe so proudly, yet discreetly (in his salvage manner) as made vs all admire his naturall gifts, considering his educa∣tion. As scorning to trade as his subiects did; he bespake Newport in this man∣ner.

Captaine Newport it is not agreeable to my greatnesse, in this pedling manner to trade for triftes; and I esteeme you also a great Werowance. Therefore lay me downe all your commodities together; what I like I will take, and in recompence giue you what I thinke fit∣ting their value. Captaine Smith being our interpreter, regarding Newport as his fa∣ther, knowing best the disposition of Powhatan, could vs his intent was but onely to cheate vs; yet Captaine Newport thinking to out braue this Salvage in ostentation of greatnesse, and so to bewitch him with his bountie, as to haue what he listed, it so hapned, that Powhatan hauing his desire, valued his corne at such a rate, that I thinke it better cheape in Spaine: for we had not foure bushells for that we expected to haue twentie hogsheads. This bred some vnkindnesse betweene our two Captaines; Newport seeking to please the vnsatiable desire of the Salvage, Smith to cause the Salvage to please him; but smothering his distast to avoyd the Saluages suspition, glanced in the eyes of Powhatan many trifles, who fixed his humor vpon a few blew beades. A long time he importunately desired them, but Smith seemed so much the more to affect them, as being composed of a most rare substance of the coulour of the skyes, and not to be worne but by the greatest kings in the world. This made him halfe madde to be the owner of such strange Iewells: so that ere we departed, for a pound or two of blew beades, be brought ouer my king for 2. or 300. Bushells of corne; yet parted good friends. The like entertainment we found of Opechankanough king of Pamavnkee, whom also he in like manner fitted (at the like rates) with blew beads, which grew by this meanes, of that estimation, that none durst weare any of them but their great kings, their wiues and children. And so we returned all well to Iames towne, where this new supply being lodged with the rest, accidentally fired their quarters and so the towne, which being but thatched with reeds, the fire was so fierce as it burnt their Pallisado’s, (though eight or ten yards distant) with their Armes, bedding, apparell, and much priuate prouision. Good Master Hunt our Preacher lost all his Library and all he had but the cloathes on his backe: yet none neuer heard him repine at his losse. This happned in the winter in that extreame frost. 1607. Now though we had victuall sufficient I meane onely of Oatmeale,meale and corne, yet the Ship staying 14. weekes when shee might as wel haue beene gone in 14. dayes, spent a great part of that, and neare all the rest that was sent to be landed. When they departed what there discretion could spare vs, to make a little poore meale or two, we called feastes, to relish our mouthes: of each somwhat they left vs, yet I must confesse, those that had either money, spare clothes credit to giue billes of paiment, gold rings, furrs, or any such commodities, were euer welcome to this remouing tauerne, such was our patience to obay such vile Commanders, and buy our owne provisions at 15. times the value, suffering them feast (we bearing the charge) yet must not repine, but fast, least we should incurre the censure of factious and seditious persons: and then leakage, ship-rats, and other casuallties occasioned them losse, but the vessels and remnants (for totals) we were glad to receaue with all our hearts to make vp the account, highly commending their prouidence for preseruing that, least they should discourage any more to come to vs. Now for all this plenty our ordynary was but meale and water, so that this great charge little releeued our wants, whereby with the extremitie of the bitter cold frost and those defects, more then halfe of vs dyed; I cannot deny but both Smith and Skriuener did their best to amend what was amisse, but with the Pre∣sident went the maior part, that there hornes were to short. But the worst was our guilded refiners with their golden promises made all men their slaues in hope of re∣compences; there was no talke, no hope, no worke, but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, loade gold, such a bruit of gold, that one mad fellow desired to be buried in the sands least they should by there art make gold of his bones: little neede there was and lesse reason, the ship should stay, there wages run on, our victualls con∣sume 14. weekes, that the Mariners might say, they did helpe to build such a golden Church that we can say the raine washed neere to nothing in 14. dayes. Were it that captaine Smith would not applaude all those golden inventions, because they admit∣ted him not to the sight of their trialls nor golden consultations, I know not; but I haue heard him oft question with Captaine Martin & tell him, except he could shew him a more substantiall triall, he was not inamoured with their durty skill, brea∣thing out these and many other passions, neuer any thing did more torment him, then to see all necessary busines neglected, to fraught such a drunken ship with so much guilded durt. Till then we neuer accounted, Captaine Newport a refiner, who being ready to set saile for England, & we not hauing any vse of Parliaments, Plaies,Petitions, Admiralls, Recorders, Interpreters, Chronologers, Courts of Plea, nor Iustices of peace, sent Master Wingfieldand Captaine Archer home with him, that had ingrossed all those titles, to seeke some better place of imployment.

Oh cursed gold those, hunger-starved movers,

To what misfortunes lead’st thou all those lovers!
For all the China wealth, nor Indies can
Suffice the minde of an av’ritious man.

CHAP. IIII. The Arrivall of the Phoenix; her returne; and other Accidents.

THe authoritie now consisting in Captaine Martin, and the still sickly Presi∣dent, the sale of the Stores commodities maintained his estate, as an inherita∣ble revenew. The spring approaching, and the Ship departing, Mr Scrivener and Captaine Smith devided betwixt them the rebuilding Iames towne; the repairing our Pallizadoes; the cutting downe trees; preparing our fields; planting our corne, and to rebuild our Church, and recover our Store house. All men thus busie at their severall labours, Master Nelson arrived with his lost Phoenix; lost (I say) for that we all deemed him lost. Landing safely all his men, (so well he had manna∣ged his ill hap,) causing the Indian Isles to feede his company, that his victuall to that we had gotten, as is said before, was neare after our allowance sufficient for halfe a yeare. He had not any thing but he freely imparted it, which honest dealing (being a Marriner) caused vs admire him: we would not haue wished more then he did for vs. Now to relade this ship with some good tydings, the President (not holding it stood with the dignitie of his place to leaue the Fort) gaue order to Captaine Smith to discover and search the commodities of the Monacans Countrey beyond the Falls. Sixtie able men was allotted them, the which within six dayes, Smith had so well trained to their armes and orders, that they little feared with whom they should in∣counter: yet so vnseasonable was the time, and so opposit was Captaine Martin to any thing, but onely to fraught this ship also with his phantasticall gold, as Cap∣taine Smith rather desired •o relade her with Cedar, (which was a present dispatch) then either with durt, or the hopes and reports of an vncertaine discovery, which he would performe when they had lesse charge and more leisure

But, The God of Heav’n, He eas’ly can

Immortalize a mortall man,
With glory and with fame.
The same God, ev’n as eas’ly may
Afflict a mortall man, I say,
With sorrow and with shame.

Whilst the conclusion was a resolving, this hapned.

Powhatan (to expresse his loue to Newport) when he departed, presented him with twentie Turkies,conditionally to returne him twentie •words, which immediately was sent him; now after his departure he presented Captaine Smith with the like luggage, but not finding his humor obeyed in not sending such weapons as he de∣sired, he caused his people with twentie devices to obtaine them. At last by ambus∣cadoes at our very Ports they would take them perforce, surprise vs at worke, or any way; which was so long permitted, they became so insolent there was no rule; the command from England was so strait not to offend them,as our authoritie-bearers (keeping their houses) would rather be any thing then peace-breakers. This chari∣table humor prevailed, till well it chanced they medled with Captaine Smith, who without farther deliberation gaue them such an incounter, as some he so hunted vp and downe the Isle, some he so terrified with whipping, beating, and impriso•ment, as for revenge they surprised two of our forraging disorderly souldiers, and having assembled their forces, boldly threatned at our Ports to force Smith to redeliver se∣ven Salvages, which for their villanies he detained prisoners, or we were all but dead men. But to try their furies he sallied out amongst them, and in lesse then an houre, he so hampred their insolencies, they brought them his two men, desiring peace without any further composition for their prisoners. Those he examined, and caused them all beleeue, by severall vollies of shot one of their companions was shot to death, because they would not confesse their intents and plotters of those villanies. And thus they all agreed in one point, they were directed onely by Powhatan to ob∣taine him our weapons, to cut our owne throats, with the manner where, how, and when, which we plainly found most true and apparant: yet he sent his messengers, and his dearest daughter Pocahontas with presents to excuse him of the iniuries done by some rash vntoward Captaines his subiects, desiring their liberties for this time, with the assurance of his loue for ever. After Smith had given the prisoners what correction he thought fit, vsed them well a day or two after, & then delivered them Pocahontas, for whose sake onely he fayned to haue saued their liues, and gaue them libertie. The patient Councell that nothing would moue to warre with the Salva∣ges, would gladly haue wrangled with Captaine Smith for his crueltie, yet none was slaine to any mans knowledge, but it brought them in such feare and obedience, as his very name would sufficiently affright them; where before, wee had sometime peace and warre twice in a day, and very seldome a weeke, but we had some treche∣rous villany or other.

The fraught of this Ship being concluded to be Cedar, by the diligence of the Master, and Captaine Smith, she was quickly reladed: Master Scrivener was neither idle nor slow to follow all things at the Fort; the Ship being ready to set sayle, Cap∣taine Martin being alwayes very sickly, and vnserviceable, and desirous to inioy the credit of his supposed Art of finding the golden Mine, was most willingly admitted to returne for England. For

He hath not fill’d his lapp,

That still doth hold it oap.

From the writings of Thomas Studley, and Anas T•dkill.

[ 1608] Their Names that were landed in this Supply. SirThomas Smith Trea∣surer.

  • Mathew Scrivener appointed to be one of the Councell.
  • Gent.
    • Michaell Phittiplace.
    • William Phittiplace.
    • Ralph Morton.
    • Richard Wyffing.
    • Iohn Taverner.
    • William Cantrell.
    • Robert Barnes.
    • Richard Fetherstone.
    • George Hill.
    • George Pretty.
    • Nathaniell Causy.
    • Peter Pory.
    • Robert Gutler.
    • Michaell Sicklemore.
    • William Bentley.
    • Thomas Coe.
    • Doctor Russell.
    • Ieffrey Abbot.
    • Edward Gurgana.
    • Richard Worley.
    • Timothy Leeds.
    • Richard Killingbeck.
    • William Spence.
    • Richard •rodger.
    • Richard Pots.
    • Richard Mullinax.
    • William Bayley.
    • Francis Perkins.
    • Iohn Harper.
    • George Forest.
    • Iohn Nichols.
    • William Griuell.
  • La∣bou∣rers.
    • Raymōd Goodison.
    • William Simons.
    • Iohn Spearman.
    • Richard Bristow.
    • William Perce.
    • Iames Watkins.
    • Iohn Bouth.
    • Christopher Rods.
    • Richard Burket.
    • Iames Burre.
    • Nicholas Ven.
    • Francis Perkins.
    • Richard Gradon.
    • Rawland Nelstrop.
    • Richard Savage.
    • Thomas Savage.
    • Richard Milmer.
    • William May.
    • Vere.
    • Michaell.
    • Bishop Wiles.
  • Tay∣lers.
    • Thomas Hope.
    • William Ward.
    • Iohn Powell.
    • William Yong.
    • William Beckwith.
    • Larence Towtales.
  • Apothe∣caries.
    • Thomas Field.
    • Iohn Harford.
  • Dani: Stallings, Ieweller.
  • Will: Dawson, a refiner.
  • Abram Ransack, a refiner.
  • Wil. Iohnson, a Goldsmith.
  • Peter Keffer, a gunsmith.
  • Rob. Alberton, a perfumer.
  • Richard Belfuld, a Gold∣smith.
  • Post Ginnat, a Chirurg.
  • Iohn Lewes, a Cooper.
  • Robert Cotton, a Tobac∣co-pipe-maker.
  • Richard Dole, a Black∣smith.
  • And divers others to the number of 120.

CHAPTER V. The Accidents that hapned in the Discovery of the Bay of Chisapeack.

THe prodigalitie of the Presidents state went so deepe into our small store, that Smith and Scrivener tyed him and his Parasites to the rules of proporti∣on. But now Smith being to depart, the Presidents authoritie so overswayed the discretion of Mr Scrivener, that our store, our time, our strength and la∣bours were idely consumed to fulfill his phantasies. The second of Iune 1608. Smith left the Fort to performe his Discovery with this Company.

  • Walter Russell, Doctor of Physicke.
  • Gentlemen.
    • Ralfe Murton.
    • Thomas Momford.
    • William Cantrill.
    • Richard Fetherston.
    • Iames Burne.
    • Michell Sicklemore.
  • Souldiers.
    • Ionas Profit.
    • Anas Todkill.
    • Robert Small.
    • Iames Watkins.
    • Iohn Powell.
    • Iames Read.
    • Richard Keale.

These being in an open Barge neare three tuns burthen, leaving the Phoenix a• Cape Henry, they crossed the Bay to the Easterne shore, and fell with the Isles called Smiths Isles,after our Captaines name. The first people we saw were two grim and stout Salvages vpon Cape Charles, with long poles like lauelings, headed with bone, they boldly demanded what we were, and what we would; but after many circum∣stances they seemed very kinde, and directed vs to Accomack, the habitation of their Werowance,where we were kindly intreated. This King was the comliest, proper, civill Salvage we incountred. His Country is a pleasant fertile clay •oyle, some small creekes; good Harbours for small Barks, but not for Ships. He told vs of a strange accident lately happened him, and it was, two children being dead; some extreame passions, or dreaming visions, phantasies, or affection moued their parents a∣gaine to revisit their dead carkases, whose benummed bodies reflected to the eyes of the beholders such delightfull countenances, as though they had regained their vitall spirits. This as a miracle drew many to behold them, all which being a great part of his people, not long after dyed, and but few escaped. They spake the lan∣guage of Powhatan, wherein they made such descriptions of the Bay, Isles, and rivers, that often did vs exceeding pleasure. Passing along the coast, searching every inlet, and Bay, fit for harbours and habitations. Seeing many Isles in the midst of the Bay we bore vp for them, but ere we could obtaine them, such an extreame gust of wind, rayne, thunder, and lightening happened, that with great danger we escaped the vnmercifull raging of that Ocean-like water. The highest land on the mayne, yet it was but low, we called Keales hill, and these vninhabited Isles, Russels Isles. The next day searching them for fresh water, we could find none, the defect whereof for∣ced vs to follow the next Easterne Channell, which brought vs to the river of Wigh∣cocomoco. The people at first with great fury seemed to assault vs, yet at last with songs and daunces and much mirth became very tractable, but searching their habitations for water, we could fill but three barricoes, & that such puddle, that never till then we ever knew the want of good water. We digged and searched in many places, but before two daies were expired, we would haue refused two barricoes of gold for one of that puddle water of Wighcocomoco. Being past these Isles which are many in num∣ber, but all naught for habitation, falling with a high land vpon the mayne, we found a great Pond of fresh water, but so exceeding hot wee supposed it some bath; that place we called poynt Ployer, in honor of that most honourable House of Mousay in Britaine, that in an extreame extremitie once relieued our Captaine. From Wigh∣cocomoco to this place, all the coast is low broken Isles of Morap, growne a myle or two in breadth, and ten or twelue in length, good to cut for hay in Summer, and to catch fish and foule in Winter: but the Land beyond them is all covered over with wood, as is the rest of the Country.

Being thus refreshed in crossing ouer from the maine to other Isles, we discouered the winde and waters so much increased with thunder, lightning, and raine, that our mast and sayle blew ouerbord and such mighty waues ouerracked vs in that small barge that with great labour we kept her frō sinking by freeing out the water. Two dayes we were inforced to inhabite these vninhabited Isles which for the extremitie of gusts, thunder, raine, stormes, and ill wether we called Limbo. Repairing our saile with our shirts, we set sayle for the maine and fell with a pretty convenient riuer on the East called Cuskarawaok, the people ran as amazed in troups from place to place, and diuers got into the tops of trees, they were not sparing of their arrowes, nor the greatest passion they could expresse of their anger. Long they shot, we still ryding at an Anchor without there reatch making all the signes of friendship we could. The next day they came vnarmed, with euery one a basket, dancing in a ring, to draw vs on shore: but seeing there was nothing in them but villany, we discharged a volly of muskets charged with pistoll shot, whereat they all lay tumbling on the grownd, creeping some one way, some another into a great cluster of reedes hard by; where there companies lay in Ambuscado. Towards the euening we wayed, & approaching the shoare, discharging fiue or six shot among the reedes, we landed where there lay a many of baskets and much bloud, but saw not a Salvage. A smoake appearing on the other side the riuer, we rowed thither, where we found two or three little houses, in each a fire, there we left some peeces of copper, beads, bells, and looking glasses, and then went into the bay, but when it was darke we came backe againe. Early in the morning foure Salvages came to vs in their Canow, whom we vsed with such courtesie, not knowing what we were, nor had done, hauing beene in the bay a fish∣ing, bad• vs stay and ere long they would returne, which they did and some twentie more with them; with whom after a little conference, two or three thousand men women & childrē came clustring about vs, euery one presēting vs with something, which a little bead would so well require, that we became such friends they would contend who should fetch vs water, stay with vs for hostage, conduct our men any whither, and giue vs the best content. Here doth inhabite the people of Sarapinagh, Nause, Arseek, and Nantaquak the best Marchants of all other Salvages. They much extolled a great nation called Massawomekes, in search of whom we ret•••ed by Limbo: this riuer but onely at the •nt•ance is very narrow, and the people of small stature as them of Wightcocomoco, the Land but low, yet it may proue very commo∣dious, because it is but a ridge of land betwixt the Bay and the maine Ocean. Finding this Easterne shore, shallow broken Isles, and for most part without fresh water, we passed by the straites of Limbo for the Westerne shore: so broad is the bay here, we could scarce perceiue the great high clifts on the other side: by them we Anchored that night and called them R•ccards Clift•s. 30. leagues we sayled more Northwards not finding any inhabitants, leauing all the Easterne shore, lowe Islandes, but ouergrowne with wood, as all the Coast beyond them so farre as wee could see: the Westerne shore by which we sayled we found all along well watered, but very mountanous and barren, the vallies very fertill, but extreame thicke of small wood so well as trees, and much frequented with Wolues, Beares, Deere and other wild beasts. We passed many shallow creekes, but the first we found Nauigable for a ship, we called Bolus, for that the clay in many places vnder the clifts by the high water marke, did grow vp in red and white knots as gum out of trees; and in some places so participated together as though they were all of one nature, excep∣ting the coulour, the rest of the earth on both sides being hard sandy grauell, which made vs thinke it Bole-Armoniack and Terra sigillata. When we first set sayle some of our Gallants doubted nothing but that our Captaine would make too much hast home, but hauing lien in this small barge not aboue 12. or 14. dayes, oft tyred at the Oares, our bread spoyled with wet so much that it was rotten (yet so good were their stomacks that they could disgest it) they did with continuall complaints so importune him now to returne, as caused him bespeake them in this manner.

Gentlemen if you would remember the memorable history of Sir Ralph Layne,how his company importuned him to proceed in the discovery of Moratico, alleadging they had yet a dog, that being boyled with Saxafras leaues, would richly feede them in their returnes; then what a shame would it be for you (that haue bin so suspitious of my tendernesse) to force me returne, with so much provision as we haue, and scarce able to say where we haue beene, nor yet heard of that we were sent to seeke? You cannot say but I haue shared with you in the worst which is past; and for what is to come, of lodging, dyet, or whatsoeuer, I am conten∣ted you allot the worst part to my selfe. As for your feares that I will lose my selfe in these vnknowne large waters, or be swallowed vp in some stormie gust; abandon these childish feares, for wor•e then to past •s not likely to happen: and there is as much danger to returne as to proceede. Regaine therefore your old spirits for returne I will not (if God please) till I haue 〈◊〉 the Massawomeks, found Patawomek,or the head of this water you conceit to be endl•sse. Two or 3. dayes we expected winde & wether, whose aduerse extremities added such discouragement, that three or foure fell sicke, whose pittifull complaints caused vs to to returne, leauing the bay some nine miles broad, at nine and ten fa∣dome water.

The 16. of Iune we fell with the riuer Patowomek: feare being gone, and our men recovered, we were all content to take some paines, to know the name of that seuen mile broad riuer: for thirtie myles sayle, we could see no inhabitants: then we were conducted by two Savages vp a little bayed creeke, towards Onawmanient, where all the woods were layd with ambuscado’s to the number of three or foure thousand Salvages, so strangely paynted, grimed and disguised, shouting, yelling and crying as so many spirits from hell could not haue shewed more terrible. Many brauado’s they made, but to appeale their fury, our Captaine prepared with as seeming a wil∣lingnesse (as they) to incounter them. But the grazing of our bullets vpon the wa∣ter (many being shot on purpose they might see them) with the Ecco of the of the woods so amazed them, as downe went their bowes and arrowes; (and ex∣changing hostage) Iames Watkins was sent six myles vp the woods to their Kings habitation. We were kindly vsed of those Salvages, of whom we vnderstood, they were commanded to betray vs, by the direction of Powhatan, and he so directed from the discontents at Iames towne, because our Captaine did cause them stay in their country against their w•lls.

The like incounters we found at Patowomek Cecocawonee and diuers other places: but at Moyaones, Nacotchtant and Toegs the people did their best to content vs. Ha∣uing gone so high as we could with the bote, we met diuers Saluages in Canowes, well loaden with the flesh of Beares, •eere and other beasts, whereof we had part, here we found mighty Rocks, growing in some places aboue the grownd as high as the shrubby trees, and diuers other solid quarries of diuers tinctures: and diuers places where the waters had falne from the high mountaines they had left a tinctured spāgled skurfe, that made many bare places seeme as guilded. Digging the growne aboue in the highest clifts of rocks, we saw it was a claie sand so mingled with yeallow spangles as if it had beene halfe pin-dust. In our returne inquiring still for this Matchqueon, the king of Patawomeke gaue vs guides to conduct vs vp a little riuer called Quiyough, vp which we rowed so high as we could. Leauing the bote, with six shot, and diuers Salvages, he marched seuen or eight myle before they came to the mine: leading his hostages in a small chaine they were to haue for their paines, being proud so richly to be adorned. The mine is a great Rocky mountaine like Antimony; wherein they digged a great hole with shells & hatchets: and hard by it, runneth a fayre brooke of Christal-like water, where they wash a way the drosse and keepe the remainder, which they put in little baggs and sell it all ouer the country to paint there bodyes, faces, or Idols; which makes them looke like Black∣mores dusted over with siluer. With so much as we could carry we returned to our bote, kindly requiting this kinde king and all his kinde people. The cause of this discovery was to search this mine, of which Newport did assure vs that those small baggs (we had giuen him) in England he had tryed to hold halfe siluer; but all we got proued of no value: also to search what furrs, the best whereof is at Cuscarawaoke, where is made so much Rawranoke or white beads that occasion as much dissention among the the Salvages, as gold and siluer amongst Christians; and what other mineralls, riuers, rocks, nations, woods, fishings, fruites, victuall, and what other commodities the land afforded: and whether the bay were endles•e or how farre it extended: of mines we were all ignorant, but a few Beuers, Otters, Beares, Martins and minkes we found, and in diuers places that aboundance of fish, lying so thicke with their heads aboue the water, as for want of nets (our barge driuing amongst them) we attempted to catch them with a frying pan: but we found it a bad instrument to catch fish with:neither better fish, more pl•nty, nor more variety for smal fish, had any of vs euer seene in any place so swimming in the water, but they are not to be caught with frying pans: some small codd also we did see swim close by the shore by Smiths Iles, and some as high as Riccards Clifts. And some we haue found dead vpon the shore.

To exprest all our quarrels, trecheries and incounters amongst those Salvages I should be too tedious: but in breefe, at all times we so incountred them, and cur∣bed their insolencies, that they concluded with presents to purchase peace; yet we lost not a man: at our first meeting out Captaine euer obserued this order to de∣mand their bowes and arrowes, swordes, mantells and furrs, with some childe or two for hostage, whereby we could quickly perceiue, when they intended any vil∣lany. Hauing finished this discouery (though our victuall was neere spent) he in∣tended to see his imprisonment-acquaintances vpon the riuer of Rapahanock, by many called Toppahanock, but our bote by reason of the ebbe, chansing to grownd vpon a many shoules lying in the entrances, we spyed many fishes lurking in the reedes: our Captaine spotting himselfe by nayling them to the grownd with his sword, set vs all a fishing in that manner: thus we tooke more in owne houre then we could eate in a day. But it chansed our Captaine taking a fish from his sword (not knowing her condition) being much of the fashion of a Thornback, but a long tayle like a ryding rodde, whereon the middest is a most poysoned sting, of two or three inches long, bearded like a saw on each side, which she strucke into the wrest of his arme neere an inch and a halfe: no bloud nor wound was seene, but a little blew spot, but the torment was instantly so extreame, that in foure houres had so swolen his hand, arme and shoulder, we all with much sorrow concluded his funerall, and prepared his graue in an Island by, as himselfe directed: yet it pleased God by a precious oyle Docter Russell at the first applyed to it when he sounded it with pro•e (ere night) his tormenting paine was so well asswaged that he eate of the fish to his supper, which gaue no lesse ioy and content to vs then ease to himselfe, for which we called the Island Stingray Isle after the name of the fish.

Hauing neither Chirurgian, nor Chirurgery, but that preseruatiue oyle we presēt∣ly set sayles for Iames towne, passing the mouthes of the riuers of Payankatank, & Pa∣mavnkee,the next day we safely arriued at Kecougtan. The simple Salvages seeing our Captaine hurt, and an other bloudy by breaking his shinne, our numbers of bowes, arrowes, swords, mantles, and furrs, would needes imagine we had beene at warres (the truth of these accidents would not satisfie them) but impatiently im∣portuned vs to know with whom. Finding their aptnesse to beleeue we fayled not (as a great secret) to tell them any thing that might affright them, what spoyle we had got and made of the Massawomeks. This rumor went faster vp the river then our Barge, that arrived at Waraskoyack the 20 of Iuly; where trimming her with painted streamers, and such devises as we could, we made them at Iames towne iealous of a Spanish Frigot, where we all God be thanked safely arrived the 21 of Iuly. There we found the last Supply were all sicke, the rest some lame, some bruised, all vnable to doe any thing but complaine of the pride and vnreasonable needlesse crueltie of the silly President, that had riotously consumed the store: and to fulfill his follies about building him an vnnecessary building for his pleasure in the woods, had brought them all to that misery; that had we not arrived, they had as strangely tormented him with revenge: but the good newes of our Discovery, and the good hope we had by the Salvages relation, that our Bay had stretched into the South Sea, or somewhat neare it, appeased their fury; but conditionally that Ratliffe should be deposed, and that Captaine Smith would take vpon him the government, as by course it did be∣long. Their request being effected, he substituted Mr Scrivener his deare friend in the Presidency, equally distributing those private provisions the other had ingrossed, appointing more honest officers to assist master Scrivener (who then lay exceeding sicke of a Callenture) and in regard of the weaknesse of the company, and heate of the yeare, they being vnable to worke, he left them to liue at ease, to recover their healths, but imbarked himselfe to finish his Discovery.

Written by Walter Russell, Anas Todkill, and Thomas Momford.

CHAP. VI. The Government surrendred to Master Scrivener. What happened the second Voyage in discovering the Bay.

THe 24 of Iuly, Captaine Smith set forward to finish the discovery with twelue men: their names were


  • Nathaniell Powell.
  • Thomas Momford.
  • Richard Fetherston.
  • Michell Sicklemore.
  • Iames Bourne.
  • Anthony Bagnall, Chir.


  • Ionas Profit.
  • Anas Todkill.
  • Edward Pising.
  • Richard Keale.
  • Iames Watkins.
  • William Ward.

The wind being contrary caused our stay two or three dayes at Kecoughtan: the King feasted vs with much mirth, his people were perswaded we went purposely to be revenged of the Massawomeks. In the evening we fired a few rackets, which fly∣ing in the ayre so terrified the poore Salvages, they supposed nothing vnpossible we attempted; and desired to assist vs. The first night we anchored at Stingray Isle. The next day crossed Patawomeks river, and hasted to the river Bolus. We went not much further before we might see the Bay to divide in two heads, and arriving there we found it divided in foure, all which we searched so farre as we could sayle them. Two of them we found inhabited, but in crossing the Bay, we incountred 7 or 8 Canowes full of Massawomeks, we seeing them prepare to assault vs, left our Oares and made way with our sayle to incounter them, yet were we but fiue with our Captaine that could stand, for within 2 dayes after we left Kecoughtan, the rest (being all of the last supply) were sicke almost •o death, vntill they were seasoned to the Country. Having shut them vnder our Tarpawling, we put their hats vpon stickes by the Barges side, and betwixt two hats a man with two peeces, to make vs seeme many, and so we thinke the Indians supposed those hats to be men, for they fled with all possible speed to the shore, and there stayed, staring at the sayling of our barge till we anchored right against them. Long it was ere we could draw them to come vnto vs. At last they sent two of their company vnarmed in a Canow, the rest all followed to second them if neede required. These two being but each presented with a bell, brought aboord all their fellowes, presenting our Captaine with veni∣son, beares flesh, fish, bowes, arrowes, clubs, targets, and beares-skinnes. We vnder∣stood them nothing at all, but by signes, whereby they signified vnto vs they had beene at warres with the Tockwoghes, the which they confirmed by shewing vs their greene wounds, but the night parting vs, we imagined they appointed the next mor∣ning to meete, but after that we never saw them.

Entring the river of Tockwogh, the Salvages all armed, in a fleete of boats, after their barbarous manner, round invironed vs; so it chanced one of them could speake the language of Powhatan, who perswaded the rest to a friendly parley. But when they saw vs furnished with the Massawomeks weapons, and we faining the invention of Kecoughtan, to haue taken them perforce; they conducted vs to their pallizado•d towne, mantelled with the barkes of trees, with scaffolds like mounts, brested about with brests very formally. Their men, women, and children with daunces, songs, fruits, furres, and what they had, kindly welcommed vs, spreading mat• for vs to sit on, stretching their best abilities to expresse their loues.

Many hatchets, kniues, peeces of iron, and brasse, we saw amongst them, which they reported to haue from the Sasquesahanocks, a mightie people and mortall ene∣mies with the Massawomeks. The Sasquesahanocks inhabit vpon the chiefe Spring of these foure branches of the Bayes head, two dayes iourney higher then our barge could passe for rocks, yet we prevailed with the Interpreter to take with him ano∣ther Interpreter, to perswade the Sasquesahanocks to come visit vs, for their language are different. Three or foure dayes we expected their returne, then sixtie of those gyant-like people came downe, with presents of Venison, Tobacco pipes three foot in length, Baskets, Targets, Bowes and Arrowes. Fiue of their chiefe Werowances came boldly aboord vs to crosse the Bay for Tockwhogh, leaving their men and Ca∣nowes; the wind being so high they durst not passe.

Our order was daily to haue Prayer, with a Psalme, at which solemnitie the poore Salvages much wondred, our Prayers being done, a while they were busied with a consultation till they had contrived their businesse. Then they began in a most pas∣sionate manner to hold vp their hands to the Sunne, with a most fearefull song, then imbracing our Captaine, they began to adore him in like manner: though he rebuked them, yet they proceeded till their song was finished: which done with a most strange furious action, and a hellish voyce, began an Oration of their loues; that ended, with a great painted Beares skin they covered him: then one ready with a great chayne of white Beads, weighing at least six or seaven pound, hung it about his necke, the others had 18 mantels, made of divers sorts of skinnes sowed toge∣ther; all these with many other toyes they layd at his feete, stroking their ceremoni∣ous hands about his necke for his Creation to be their Governour and Protector, promising their aydes, victualls, or what they had to be his, if he would stay with them, to defend and revenge them of the Massawomecks. But we left them at Tock∣whogh, sorrowing for our departure, yet we promised the next yeare againe to visit them. Many descriptions and discourses they made vs, of Atquanachuck, Massawo∣mek, & other people, signifying they inhabit vpon a great water beyond the moun∣taines, which we vnderstood to be some great lake, or the river of Canada: and from the French to haue their hatchets and Commodities by trade. These know no more of the territories of Powhatan, then his name, and he as little of them, but the At∣quanachuks are on the Ocean Sea.

The highest mountaine we saw Northward wee called Perigrines mount, and a rocky river, where the Massawomeks went vp, Willowbyes river, in honor of the towne our Captaine was borne in, and that honorable house the Lord Willowby, his most honored good friend. The Sasquesahanocks river we called Smiths falles; the next poynt to Tockwhogh, Pisingspoynt; the next it poynt Bourne. Powells Isles and Smals poynt is by the river Bolus; and the little Bay at the head Profits poole; Watkins, Reads, and Momfords poynts are on each side Limbo; Ward, Cantrell, and Sicklemore, betwixt Patawomek and Pamavnk•e, after the names of the discoverers. In all those places and the furthest we came vp the rivers, we cut in trees so many crosses as we would, and in many places made holes in trees, wherein we writ notes, and in some places cros∣ses of brasse, to signifie to any, Englishmen had beene there.

Thus having sought all the inlets and rivers worth noting, we returned to disco∣ver the river of Pawtuxunt; these people we found very tractable, and more civill then any, we promised them, as also the Patawomeks to revenge them of the Massa∣womeks, but our purposes were crossed.

In the discovery of this river some call Rapathanock, we were kindly entertained by the people of Moraughtacund; here we incountered our old friend Mosco, a lusty Salvage of Wighcocomoco vpō the river of Patawomek, we supposed him some French mans sonne, because he had a thicke blacke bush beard, and the Salvages seldome haue any at all, of which he was not a little proud, to see so many of his Country∣men. Wood and water he would fetch vs, guide vs any whether, nay, cause divers of his Countrymen helpe vs towe against winde or tyde from place to place till we came to Patawomek: there he rested till we returned from the head of the river, and occasioned our conduct to the mine we supposed Antimony. And in the place he fay∣led not to doe vs all the good he could, perswading vs in any case not to goe to the Rapahanocks, for they would kill vs for being friends with the Moraughtacunds that but lately had stolne three of the Kings women. This we did thinke was but that his friends might onely haue our trade: so we crossed the river to the Rapahanocks. There some 12 or 16 standing on the shore, directed vs a little Creeke where was good landing, and Commodities for vs in three or foure Canowes we saw lie there: but according to our custome, we demanded to exchange a man in signe of loue, which after they had a little consulted, foure or fiue came vp to the middles, to fetch our man, and leaue vs one of them, shewing we need not feare them, for they had neither clubs, bowes, nor arrowes. Notwithstanding, Anas Todkill, being sent on shore to see if he could discover any Ambuscadoes, or what they had, desired to goe over the playne to fetch some wood, but they were vnwilling, except we would come into the Creeke, where the boat might come close ashore. Todkill by degrees having got some two stones throwes vp the playne, perceived two or three hundred men (as he thought) behind the trees, so that offering to returne to the Boat, the Salvages assayed to carry him away perforce, that he called to vs we were betrayed, and by that he had spoke the word, our hostage was over-boord, but Watkins his keeper slew him in the water. Immediatly we let fly amongst them, so that they fled, & Todkill escaped, yet they shot so fast that he fell flat on the ground ere he could re∣cover the boat. Here the Massawomek Targets stood vs in good stead, for vpon Mos∣co’s words, we had set them about the forepart of our Boat like a forecastle, from whence we securely beat the Salvages from off the plaine without any hurt: yet they shot more then a thousand Arrowes, and then fled into the woods. Arming our selues with these light Targets (which are made of little small sticks woven betwixt strings of their hempe and silke grasse, as is our Cloth, but so firmely that no arrow can possibly pierce them:) we rescued Todkill, who was all bloudy by some of them who were shot by vs that held him, but as God pleased he had no hurt; and follow∣ing them vp to the woods, we found some slaine, and in divers places much bloud. It seems all their arrowes were spent, for we heard no more of them. Their Canows we tooke; the arrowes we found we broke, saue them we kept for Mosco, to whom we gaue the Canowes for his kindnesse, that entertained vs in the best trivmphing manner, and warlike order in armes of conquest he could procure of the Moraugh∣tacunds.

The rest of the day we spent in accomodating our Boat, in stead of thoules wee made stickes like Bedstaues, to which we fastened so many of our Massawomek Tar∣gets, that invironed her as wast clothes. The next morning we went vp the river, and our friend Mosco followed vs along the shore, and at last desired to goe with vs in our Boat. But as we passed by Pisacack, Matchopeak, and Mecuppom, three Townes situated vpon high white clay clifts; the other side all a low playne marish, and the river there but narrow. Thirtie or fortie of the Rapahanocks, had so accommodated themselues with branches, as we tooke them for little bushes growing among the sedge, still seeing their arrowes strike the Targets, and dropped in the river: where-at Mosco fell flat in the Boat on his face, crying the Rapahanocks, which presently we espied to be the bushes, which at our first volley fell downe in the sedge: when wee were neare halfe a myle from them, they shewed themselues dauncing and singing very merrily.

The Kings of Pissassack, Nandtaughtacund, and Cuttatawomen, vsed vs kindly, and all their people neglected not any thing to Mosco to bring vs to them. Betwixt Se∣cobeck and Massawteck is a small Isle or two, which causeth the river to be broader then ordinary; there it pleased God to take one of our Company called Mr Fether∣stone, that all the time he had beene in this Country, had behaved himselfe, honest∣ly, valiantly, and industriously, where in a little Bay we called Fetherstones Bay wee buryed him with a volley of shot: the rest notwithstanding their ill dyet, and bad lodging, crowded in so small a Barge, in so many dangers never resting, but alwayes tossed to and againe, had all well recovered their healths. The next day wee sayled so high as our Boat would float, there setting vp crosses, and graving our names in the trees. Our Sentinell saw an arrow fall by him, though we had ranged vp and downe more then an houre in digging in the earth, looking of stones, herbs, and springs, not seeing where a Salvage could well hide himselfe.

Vpon the alarum by that we had recovered our armes, there was about an hun∣dred nimble Indians skipping from tree to tree, letting fly their arrows so fast as they could: the trees here served vs for Baricadoes as well as they. But Mosco did vs more service then we expected, for having shot away his quiver of Arrowes, he ran to the Boat for more. The Arrowes of Mosco at the first made them pause vpon the mat∣ter, thinking by his bruit and skipping, there were many Salvages. About halfe an houre this continued, then they all vanished as suddainly as they approached. Mos∣co followed them so farre as he could see vs, till they were out of sight. As we retur∣ned there lay a Salvage as dead, shot in the knee, but taking him vp we found he had life, which Mosco seeing, never was Dog more furious against a Beare, then Mosco was to haue beat out his braines, so we had him to our Boat, where our Chirurgian who went with vs to cure our Captaines hurt of the Stingray, so dressed this Salvage that within an houre after he looked somewhat chearefully, and did eate and speake. In the meane time we contented Mosco in helping him to gather vp their arrowes, which were an armefull, whereof he gloried not a little. Then we desired Mosco to know what he was, and what Countries were beyond the mountaines; the poore Salvage mildly answered, he and all with him were of Hasinninga, where there are three Kings more, like vnto them, namely the King of Stegora, the King of Tauxun∣tania, and the King of Shakahonea, that were come to Moha•kahod, which is onely a hunting Towne, and the bounds betwixt the Kingdome of the Mannahocks, and the Nandtaughtacunds, but hard by where we were. We demanded why they came in that manner to betray vs, that came to them in peace, and to seeke their loues; he answered, they heard we were a people come from vnder the world, to take their world from them. We asked him how many worlds he did know, he replyed, he knew no more but that which was vnder the skie that covered him, which were the Powhatans, with the Monacans, and the Massawomeks, that were higher vp in the mountaines. Then we asked him what was beyond the mountaines, he answe∣red the Sunne: but of any thing els he knew nothing; because the woods were not burnt. These and many such questions wee demanded, concerning the Massawo∣meks, the Monacans, their owne Country, and where were the Kings of Stegora, Tauxsintania, and the rest. The Monacans he sayd were their neighbours and friends, and did dwell as they in the hilly Countries by small rivers, liuing vpon rootes and fruits, but chiefly by hunting. The Massawomeks did dwell vpon a great water, and had many boats, & so many men that they made warre with all the world. For their Kings, they were gone every one a severall way with their men on hunting: But those with him came thither a fishing till they saw vs, notwithstanding they would be altogether at night at Mahaskahod. For his relation we gaue him many toyes, with perswasions to goe with vs, and he as earnestly desired vs to stay the comming of those Kings that for his good vsage should be friends with vs, for he was brother to Hasinninga. But Mosco advised vs presently to be gone, for they were all naught, yet we told him we would not till it was night. All things we made ready to enter∣tain what came, & Mosco was as diligent in trimming his arrowes. The night being come we all imbarked, for the riuer was so narrow, had it beene light the land on the one side was so high, they might haue done vs exceeding much mischiefe. All this while the K. of Hasinninga was seeking the rest, and had consultation a good time what to doe. But by their espi•s seeing we were gone, it was not long before we heard their arrowes dropping on every side the Boat; we cause• our Salvages to call vnto them, but such a yelling & hallowing they made that they heard nothing, but now and then a peece, ayming so neare as we could where we heard the most voyces. More then 12 myles they followed vs in this manner; then the day appea∣ring, we found our selues in a broad Bay, out of danger of their shot, where wee came to an anchor, and fell to breakfast. Not so much as speaking to them till the Sunne was risen; being well refreshed, we vntyed our Targets that couered vs as a Deck, and all shewed our selues with those shields on our armes, and swords in our hands, and also our prisoner Amoroleck; a long discourse there was betwixt his Countrimen and him, how good wee were, how well wee vsed him, how wee had a Patawomek with vs, loued vs as his life, that would haue slaine him had we not pre∣serued him, and that he should haue his libertie would they be but friends; and to doe vs any hurt it was impossible. Vpon this they all hung their Bowes and Qui∣vers vpon the trees, and one came swimming aboord vs with a Bow tyed on his head, and another with a Quiver of Arrowes, which they deliuered our Captaine as a present, the Captaine hauing vsed them so kindly as he could, told them the o∣ther three Kings should doe the like, and then the great King of our world should be their friend, whose men we were. It was no sooner demanded but performed, so vpon a low Moorish poynt of Land we went to the shore, where those foure Kings came and receiued Amoroleck: nothing they had but Bowes, Arrowes, Tobacco-bags, and Pipes: what we desired, none refused to giue vs, wondering at every thing we had, and heard we had done: our Pistols they tooke for pipes, which they much desired, but we did content them with other Commodities, and so we left foure or fiue hundred of our merry Mannahocks, singing, dauncing, and making merry, and set sayle for Moraughtacund.

In our returnes we visited all our friends, that reioyced much at our Victory a∣gainst the Mannahocks, who many times had Warres also with them, but now they were friends, and desired we would be friends with the Rapahanocks, as we were with the Mannahocks. Our Captaine told them, they had twise assaulted him that came onely in loue to doe them good, and therefore he would now burne all their hou∣ses, destroy their corne, and for euer hold them his enemies, till they made him sa∣tisfaction; they desired to know what that should be: he told them they should pre∣sent him the Kings Bow and Arrowes, and not offer to come armed where he was; that they should be friends with the Moraughtacunds his friends, and giue him their Kings sonne in pledge to performe it, and then all King Iames his men should be their friends. Vpon this they presently sent to the Rapahanocks to meete him at the place where they first fought, where would be the Kings of Nantautacund and Pis∣sassac: which according to their promise were there so soone as we; where Rapahanock presented his Bow and Arrowes, and confirmed all we desired, except his sonne, ha∣ving no more but him he could not liue without him, but in stead of his sonne he would giue him the three women Moraughtacund had stol•e. This was accepted: and so in three or foure Canowes, so many as could went with vs to Moraughtacund, where Mosco made them such relations, and gaue to his friends so many Bowes and Arrowes, that they no lesse loued him then admired vs. The 3 women were brought our Captaine, to each he gaue a chayne of Beads: and then causing Moraughtacund, Mosco, and Rapahanock stand before him, bid Rapahanock take her he loued best, and Moraughtacund chuse next, & to Mosco he gaue the third. Vpon this away went their Canowes over the water, to fetch their venison, and all the provision they could, and they that wanted Boats swam over the river: the darke commanded vs then to rest. The next day there was of men, women, and children, as we coniectured, six or sea∣uen hundred, dauncing, & singing, and not a Bow nor Arrow seene amongst them. Mosco changed his name V•tasantascugh, which we interpret Stranger, for so they call vs. All promising ever to be our friends, and to plant Corne purposely for vs; and we to provide hatchets, beads, and copper for them, we departed, giuing them a Volley of shot, and they vs as loud shouts and cryes as their strengths could vtter. That night we anchored in the river of Payankatank, and discovered it so high as it was navigable, but the people were most a hunting, saue a few old men, women, and children, that were tending their corne, of which they promised vs part when we would fetch it, as had done all the Nations where ever we had yet beene.

In a fayre calme, rowing towards poynt Comfort, we anchored in Gosnolls Bay, but such a suddaine gust surprised vs in the night with thunder and rayne, that we never thought more to haue seene Iames Towne. Yet running before the wind, we sometimes saw the Land by the flashes of fire from heaven, by which light onely we kept from the splitting shore, vntill it pleased God in that blacke darknesse to pre∣serue vs by that light to finde poynt Comfort: there refreshing our selues, because we had onely but heard of the Chisapeacks & Nandsamunds, we thought it as fit to know all our neighbours neare home, as so many Nations abroad.

So setting sayle for the Southerne shore, we sayled vp a narrow river vp the coun∣try of Chisapeack; it hath a good channell, but many shoules about the entrance. By that we had sayled six or seauen myles, we saw two or three little garden plots with their houses, the shores overgrowne with the greatest Pyne and Firre trees wee ever saw in the Country. But not seeing nor hearing any people, and the riuer very nar∣row, we returned to the great riuer, to see if we could finde any of them. Coasting the shore towards Nandsamund, which is most Oyster-bankes; at the mouth of that riuer, we espied six or seauen Salvages making their wires, who presently fled: a∣shore we went, and where they wrought we threw diuers toyes, and so departed. Farre we were not gone ere they came againe, and began to sing, and daunce, and recall vs: and thus we began our first acquaintance. At last one of them desired vs to goe to his house vp that riuer, into our Boat voluntarily he came, the rest ran af∣ter vs by the shore with all shew of loue that could be. Seauen or eight myles we say∣led vp this narrow riuer: at last on the Westerne shore we saw large Cornefields, in the midst a little Isle, and in it was abundance of Corne; the people he told vs were all a hunting, but in the Isle was his house, to which he inuited vs with much kindnesse: to him▪ his wife, and children, we gaue such things as they seemed much contented them. The others being come, desired vs also to goe but a little higher to see their houses: here our host left vs, the rest rowed by vs in a Canow, till we were so far past the Isle the riuer became very narrow. Here we desired some of them to come abord vs, wherat pausing a little, they told vs they would but fetch their bows and arrowes and goe all with vs, but being a-shore and thus armed, they perswaded vs to goe forward, but we could neither perswade them into their Canow, nor into our Boat. This gaue vs cause to prouide for the worst. Farre we went not ere seauen or eight Canowes full of men armed appeared following vs, staying to see the con∣clusion. Presently from each side the riuer came arrowes so fast as two or three hun∣dred could shoot them, whereat we returned to get the open. They in the Canowes let fly also as fast, but amongst them we bestowed so many shot, the most of them leaped overboard and swam ashore, but two or three escaped by rowing, being a∣gainst their playnes: our Muskets they found shot further then their Bowes, for wee made not twentie shot •re they all retyred behind the next trees. Being thus got out of their trap, we seised on all their Canowes, and moored them in the midst of the open. More then an hundred arrowes stucke in our Targets, and about the boat, yet none hurt, onely Anthony Bagnall was shot in his Hat, and another in his sleeue. But seeing their multitudes, and suspecting as it was, that both the Nandsamunds, and the Chisapeacks were together, we thought it best to ryde by their Canowes a while, to bethinke if it were better to burne all in the Isle, or draw them to compo∣sition, till we were prouided to take all they had, which was sufficient to feed all our Colony: but to burne the Isle at night it was concluded. In the interim we began to cut in peeces their Canowes, and they presently to lay downe their bowes, making signes of peace: peace we told them we would accept, would they bring vs their Kings bowes and arrowes, with a chayne of pearle; and when we came againe giue vs foure hundred baskets full of Corne, otherwise we would breake all their boats, and burne their houses, and corne, and all they had. To performe all this they al∣ledged onely the want of a Canow; so we put one a drift & bad them swim to fetch her: and till they performed their promise, wee would but onely breake their Ca∣nowes. They cryed to vs to doe no more, all should be as we would: which presently they performed, away went their bowes and arrowes, and tagge and ragge came with their baskets: so much as we could carry we tooke, and so departing good friends, we returned to Iames Towne, where we safely arrived the 7. of September, 1608. There we found Mr Scrivener, and divers others well recovered: many dead; some sicke: the late President prisoner for mutiny: by the honest diligence of Ma∣ster Scrivener, the haruest gathered, but the provision in the store much spoyled with rayne. Thus was that summer (when little wanted) consumed and spent, and no∣thing done (such was the gouernment of Captaine Ratliffe) but onely this discovery; wherein to expresse all the dangers, accidents, and incounters this small number passed in that small Barge, by the scale of proportion, about three thousand myles, with such watery dyet in those great waters and barbarous Countries (till then to any Christian vtterly vnknowne) I rather referre their merit to the censure of the courteous and experienced Reader, then I would be tedious or partiall being a partie.

But to this place to come who will adventure,

with iudgements guide and reason how to enter:
Finds in this worlds broad sea, with winde and tyde,
Ther’s safer sayle then any where beside,
But ’cause to wanton novices it is
A Province full of fearefulnesse I wiss;
Into the great vast deepe to venter out:
Those shallow rivers let them coast about.
And by a small Boat learne there first, and marke,
How they may come to make a greater Barke.
Written by Anthony Bagnall, Nathanaell Powell, and Anas Todkill.

CHAPTER VII. The Presidency surrendred to Captaine Smith: the Arrivall and returne of the second Supply. And what happened.

THe tenth of September, by the Election of the Councell, and request of the Company, Captaine Smith receiued the Letters Patents: which till then by no meanes he would accept, though he was often importuned therevnto. Now the building of Ratliffes Pallace stayed as a thing needlesse; the Church was repaired; the Store-house recouered; buildings prepared for the Supplyes, we expected; the Fort reduced to a fiue-square forme; the order of the Watch renew∣ed; the squadrons (each setting of the Watch) trained; the whole Company euery Saturday exercised, in the plaine by the west Bulwarke, prepared for that purpose, we called Smithfield: where sometimes more then an hundred Salvages would stand in an amazement to behold, how a fyle would batter a tree, where he would make them a marke to shoot at; the boats trimmed for trade, which being sent out with Lieutenant Percy, in their Iourney incountred the second Supply, that brought them backe to discover the Country of Monacan. How or why Captaine Newport obtained such a private Commission, as not to returne without a lumpe of gold, a certaintie of the South sea, or one of the lost company sent out by Sir Water Raleigh, I know not; nor why he brought such a fiue peeced Barge, not to beare vs to that South sea, till we had borne her over the mountaines, which how farre they extend is yet vnknowne. As for the Coronation of Powhatan, and his presents of Bason and Ewer, Bed, Bedstead, Clothes, and such costly nouelties, they had beene much better well spared then so ill spent, for wee had his favour much better onely for a playne peece of Copper, till this stately kinde of soliciting, made him so much o∣vervalue himselfe, that he respected vs as much as nothing at all. As for the hyring of the Poles and Dutch-men, to make Pitch, Tar, Glasse▪ Milles, and Sope ashes, when the Country is replenished with people, and necessaries, would haue done well, but to send them and seauentie more without victualls to worke, was not so well aduised nor considered of, as it should haue beene. Yet this could not haue hurt vs had they beene 200. though then we were 130 that wanted for our selues. For we had the Salvages in that decorum (their harvest being newly gathered, that we fea∣red not to get victuals for 500.Now was there no way to make vs miserable, but to neglect that time to make prouision whilst it was to be had, the which was done by the direction from England to performe this strange discovery, but a more strange Coronation to loose that time, spend that victualls we had, tyre and starue our men, hauing no meanes to carry victuals, munition, the hurt or sicke, but on their owne backes. How or by whom they were inuented I know not: but Captaine Newport we onely accounted the Author, who to effect these proiects, had so guilded mens hopes with great promises, that both Company and Councell concluded his resolu∣tion for the most part: God doth know they little knew what they did, nor vnder∣stood their owne estates to conclude his conclusions, against all the inconveniences the foreseeing President alledged. Of this Supply there was added to the Councell, one Captaine Richard Waldo, and Captaine Wynne, two auncient Souldiers, and vali∣ant Gentlemen, but yet ignorant of the busines, (being but newly arriued.) Ratliffe was also permitted to haue his voyce, & Mr Scrivener, desirous to see strange Coun∣tries: so that although Smith was President, yet the Maior part of the Councell had the authoritie and ruled it as they listed. As for clearing Smiths obiections, how Pitch and Tarre, Wainscot, Clapbord, Glasse, and Sope ashes, could be provided, to relade the ship, or provision got to liue withall, when none was in the Country, and that we had, spent, before the ship departed to effect these projects. The answer was, Captaine Newport vndertooke to fraught the Pinnace of twentie tunnes with Corne in going and returning in his Discovery, and to refraught her againe from Werowocomoco of Powhatan. Also promising a great proportion of victualls from the Ship; inferring that Smiths propositions were onely devices to hinder his iourney, to effect it himselfe; and that the crueltie he had vsed to the Salvages, might well be the occasion to hinder these Designes, and seeke revenge on him. For which taxa∣tion all workes were left, and 120 chosen men were appointed for Newports guard in this Discovery. But Captaine Smith to make cleare all those seeming suspitions, that the Salvages were not so desperate as was pretended by Captaine Newport, and how willing (since by their authoritie they would haue it so) he was to assist them what he could, because the Coronation would consume much time, he vndertooke himselfe their message to Powhatan, to intreat him to come to Iames Towne to re∣ceiue his presents. And where Newport durst not goe with lesse then 120. he onely tooke with him Captaine Waldo, Mr Andrew Buckler, Edward Brinton, and Samuel Collier: with these foure he went over land to Werowocomoco,some 12 myles; there he passed the river of Pamavnkee in a Salvage Canow. Powhatan being 30 myles of, was presently sent for: in the meane time, Pocahontas and her women entertained Captaine Smith in this manner.

In a fayre plaine field they made a fire, before which▪ he sitting vpon a mat, sud∣dainly amongst the woods was heard such a hydeous noise and shreeking, that the English betooke themselues to their armes, and seized on two or three old men by them, supposing Powhatan with all his power was come to surprise them. But pre∣sently Pocahontas came, willing him to kill her if any hurt were intended, and the beholders, which were men, women, and children, satisfied the Captaine there was no such matter. Then presently they were presented with this anticke; thirtie young women came naked out of the woods, onely covered behind and before with a few greene leaues, their bodies all painted, some of one colour, some of another, but all differing, their leader had a fayre payre of Bucks hornes on her head, and an Otters skinne at her girdle, and another at her arme, a quiver of arrowes at her backe, a bow and arrowes in her hand; the next had in her hand a sword, another a club, another a pot-sticke; all horned alike: the rest every one with their severall devises. These fiends with most hellish shouts and cryes, rushing from among the trees, cast them∣selues in a ring about the fire, singing and dauncing with most excellent ill varietie, oft falling into their infernall passions, and solemnly againe to sing and daunce; ha∣ving spent neare an houre in this Mascarado, as they entred in like manner they de∣parted.

Having reaccōmodated themselues, they solemnly invited him to their lodgings, where he was no sooner within the house, but all these Nymphes more tormented him then ever, with crowding, pressing, and hanging about him, most tediously crying, Loue you not me? loue you not me? This salutation ended, the feast was set, consisting of all the Salvage dainties they could devise: some attending, others sing∣ing and dauncing about them; which mirth being ended, with fire-brands in stead of Torches they conducted him to his lodging.

Thus did they shew their feats of armes, and others art in dauncing:
Some other vs’d there oaten pipe, and others voyces chanting.

The next day came Powhatan: Smith delivered his message of the presents sent him, and redelivered him Namontack he had sent for England, desiring him to come to his Father Newport, to accept those presents, and conclude their revenge against the Monacans. Wherevnto this subtile Savage thus replyed.

If your King haue sent me Presents, I also am a King, and this is my land: eight dayes I will stay to receiue them.Your Father is to come to me, not I to him, nor yet to your Fort, neither will I bite at such a bait: as for the Monacans I can revenge my owne iniuries, and as for Atquanachuk, where you say your brother was slaine, it is a contrary way from those parts you suppose it; but for any salt water beyond the mountaines, the Relations you haue had from my people are false. Wherevpon he began to draw plots vpon the ground (according to his discourse) of all those Regions. Many other discourses they had (yet both content to giue each other content in complementall Courtesies) and so Captaine Smithreturned with this Answer.

Vpon this the Presents were sent by water which is neare an hundred myles, and the Captains went by land with fiftie good shot. All being met at Werowocomoco, the next day was appointed for his Coronation, then the presents were brought him, his Bason and Ewer, Bed and furniture set vp, his scarlet Cloke and apparell with much adoe put on him, being perswaded by Namontack they would not hurt him: but a soule trouble there was to make him kneele to receiue his Crowne, he neither knowing the maiesty nor meaning of a Crowne, nor bending of the knee, endured so many perswasions, examples, and instructions, as tyred them all; at last by lea∣ning hard on his shoulders, he a little stooped, and three having the crowne in their hands put it on his head, when by the warning of a Pistoll the Boats were prepared with such a volley of shot, that the King start vp in a horrible feare, till he saw all was well. Then remembring himselfe, to congratulate their kindnesse, he gaue his old shooes and his mantell to Captaine Newport: but perceiving his purpose was to discover the Monacans, he laboured to divert his resolution, refusing to lend him ei∣ther men or guides more then Namontack; and so after some small complement all kindnesse on both sides, in requitall of his presents he presented Newport with a heape of wheat eares that might containe some 7 or 8 Bushels, and as much more we bought in the Towne, wherewith we returned to the Fort.

The Ship having disburdened her selfe of 70 persons, with the first Gentlewoman and woman-seruant that arrived in our Colony. Captaine Newport with 120 chosen men, led by Captaine Waldo, Lieutenant Percie, Captaine Winne, Mr West, and Mr Scrivener, set forward for the discovery of Monacan, leaving the President at the Fort with about 80. or 90. (such as they were) to relade the Ship. Arriving at the Falles we marched by land some fortie myles in two dayes and a halfe, and so returned downe the same path we went. Two townes we discovered of the Monacans, called Massinacak and Mowhemenchouch, the people neither vsed vs well nor ill, yet for our securitie we tooke one of their petty Kings, and led him bound to conduct vs the way. And in our returnes searched many places we supposed Mines, about which we spent some time in refyning, having one William Gallicut, a refyner fitted for that purpose. From that crust of earth we digged, he perswaded vs to beleeue he extrac∣ted some small quantitie of silver; and (not vnlikely) better stuffe might be had for the digging. With this poore tryall, being contented to leaue this fayre, fertile, well watered Country; and comming to the Falles, the Salvages fayned there were divers ships come into the Bay, to kill them at Iames Towne. Trade they would not, and finde their Corne we could not; for they had hid it in the woods: and being thus deluded, we arrived at Iames Towne, halfe sicke, all complaining, and tyred with toyle, famine, and discontent, to haue onely but discovered our guilded hopes, and such fruitlesse certainties, as Captaine Smith fortold vs.

But those that hunger seeke to slake,

Which thus abounding wealth would rake:
Not all the gemmes of Ister shore,
Nor all the gold of Lydia’s store,
Can fill their greedie appetite;
It is a thing so infinite.

No sooner were we landed, but the President dispersed so many as were able, some for Glasse, others for Tarre, Pitch, and Sope-ashes, leauing them with the Fort to the Councels oversight, but 30 of vs he conducted downe the river some 5 myles from Iames towne, to learne to make Clapbord, cut downe trees, and lye in woods. Amongst the rest he had chosen Gabriel Beadle, and Iohn Russell, the onely two gal∣lants of this last Supply, and both proper Gentlemen. Strange were these pleasures to their conditions; yet lodging, eating, and drinking, working or playing, they but doing as the President did himselfe. All these things were carried so pleasantly as within a weeke they became Masters: making it their delight to heare the trees thunder as they fell; but the Axes so oft blistered their tender fingers, that many times every third blow had a loud othe to drowne the eccho; for remedie of which sinne, the President devised how to haue every mans othes numbred, and at night for every othe to haue a Cann of water powred downe his sleeue, with which every offender was so washed (himselfe and all) that a man should scarce heare an othe in a weeke.

For he who scornes and makes but iests of cursings, and his othe,

He doth contemne, not man but God, nor God, nor man, but both.

By this, let no man thinke that the President and these Gentlemen spent their times as common Wood-haggers at felling of trees, or such other like labours, or that they were pressed to it as hirelings, or common slaues; for what they did, after they were but once a little invred, it seemed and some conceited it, onely as a plea∣sure and recreation, yet 30 or 40 of such voluntary Gentlemen would doe more in a day then 100 of the rest that must be prest to it by compulsion, but twentie good workemen had beene better then them all.

Master Scrivener, Captaine Waldo, and Captaine Winne at the Fort, every one in like manner carefully regarded their charge. The President returning from amongst the woods, seeing the time consumed and no provision gotten, (and the Ship lay idle at a great charge and did nothing) presently imbarked himselfe in the discove∣ry barge, giving order to the Councell to send Lieutenant Percie after him with the next barge that arrived at the Fort; two Barges he had himselfe and 18 men, but arriving at Chickahamania, that dogged Nation was too well acquainted with our wants, refusing to trade, with as much scorne and insolency as they could expresse. The President perceiuing it was Powhatans policy to starue vs, told them he came not so much for their Corne, as to revenge his imprisonment, and the death of his men murthered by them, and so landing his men and readie to charge them, they immediately fled: and presently after sent their Ambassadors with corne, fish, foule, and what they had to make their peace, (their Corne being that yeare but bad) they complained extreamely of their owne wants, yet fraughted our Boats with an hun∣dred Bushels of Corne, and in like manner Lieutenant Percies, that not long after arrived, and having done the best they could to content vs, we parted good friends, and returned to Iames towne.

Though this much contented the Company, (that feared nothing more then starving) yet some so envied his good successe, that they rather desired to hazzard a starving, then his paines should proue so much more effectuall then theirs. Some proiects there were invented by Newport and Ratliffe, not onely to haue deposed him, but to haue kept him out of the Fort; for that being President, he would leaue his place and the Fort without their consents, but their hornes were so much too short to effect it, as they themselues more narrowly escaped a greater mischiefe.

All this time our old Taverne made as much of all them that had either money or ware as could be desired: by this time they were become so perfect on all sides (I meane the souldiers, saylers, and Salvages) as there was tenne times more care to maintaine their damnabl• and private trade, then to provide for the Colony things

that were necessary. Neither was it a small policy in Newport and the Marriners to report in England we had such plentie, and bring vs so many men without victuals, when they had so many private Factors in the Fort, that within six or seauen weeks, of two or three hundred Axes, Chissels, Hows, and Pick-axes, scarce twentie could be found: and for Pike-heads, shot, Powder, or any thing they could steale from their f•llowes, was vendible; they knew as well (and as secretly) how to convey them to trade with the Salvages for Furres, Baskets, Mussaneeks, young Beasts, or such like Commodities, as exchange them with the Saylers for Butter, Cheese, Beefe, Porke, Aqua vitae, Beere, Bisket, Oatmeale, and Oyle: and then fayne all was sent them from their friends And though Virginia affoorded no Furres for the Store, yet one Master in one voyage hath got so many by this indirect meanes, as he confessed to haue sold in England for 30l.

Those are the Saint-seeming Worthies of Virginia, that haue notwithstanding all this meate, drinke, and wages; but now they begin to grow weary, their trade being both perceived and prevented; none hath beene in Virginia that hath observed any thing, which knowes not this to be true, and yet the losse, the scorne, the misery, and shame, was the poore Officers, Gentlemen, and carelesse Governours, who were all thus bought & sold; the adventurers cousened, and the action overthrowne by their false excuses, informations, and directions. By this let all men iudge, how this busi∣nesse could prosper, being thus abused •y such pilfring occasions. And had not Captaine Newport cryed Peccavi, the President would haue discharged the ship, and caused him to haue stayed one yeare in Virginia, to learne to speake of his owne experience.

Master Scrivener was sent with the Barges and Pinnace to Werowocomoco, where he found the Salvages more readie to fight then trade; but his vigilancy was such as prevented their proiects, and by the meanes of Namontack got three or foure hogsheads of Corne, and as much Pocones, which is a red roote, which then was e∣steemed an excellent Dye.

Captaine Newport being dispatched, with the tryals of Pitch, Tarre, Glasse, Frank∣incense, Sope ashes; with that Clapboord and Waynscot that could be provided: met with MrScrivener at poynt Comfort, and so returned for England. We remaining were about two hundred.

¶ The Copy of a Letter sent to the Treasurer and Councell of Virginia from Captaine Smith, then President in VIRGINIA.

Right Honorable, &c.

I Received your Letter, wherein you write, that our minds are so set vpon facti∣on, and idle conceits in diuiding the Country without your consents, and that we feed You but with ifs & ands, hopes, & some few proofes; as if we would keepe the myste•y of the businesse to our selues: and that we must expresly follow your instructions sent by Captain Newport: the charge of whose voyage amounts to neare two thousand pounds, the which if we cannot defray by the Ships returne, we are like to r•main as banished men. To these particulars I humbly intreat your Pardons if I offend you with my rude Answer.

For our factions, vnlesse you would haue me run away and leaue the Country, I ca•not prevent them, because I do make many stay that would els fly any whether. For the i•le Letter sent to my Lord of Salisbury, by the President and his conf•∣derats, for diuiding the Country &c. What it was I know not, for you saw no hand of mine to it; nor euer dream’t I of any such matter. That we feed you with hopes, &c. Though I be no scholer, I am past a schoole boy; and I desire but to know, what either you, and these here doe know, but that I haue learned to tell you by the continuall hazard of my life. I haue not concealed from you any thing I know; but I feare some cause you to beleeue much more then is true.

Expresly to follow your direstions by Captaine Newport, though they be perfor∣med, I was directly against it; but according to our Commission, I was content to be overrul•d by the maior part of the Councell, I feare to the hazard of vs all; which now is generally confessed when it is too late. Onely Captaine Winne and Captaine Waldo I haue sworne of the Councell, and Crowned Powhatan accor∣ding to you instructions.

For th• charge of this Voyage of two or three thousand pounds, we haue not recei∣ued the value of an hundred pounds. And for the quartred Boat to be borne by th• Souldiers over the Falles, Newport had 120 of the best men he could chuse. If he had burnt her to ash•s, one might haue carried her in a bag, but as she is, fiue hun∣dred cann•t, to a navigable place aboue the Falles. And for him at that time to find in the South Sea, a Mine of gold; or any of them sent by Sir Walter Raleigh: at our Consultation I told them was as likely as the rest. But during this great disco∣very of thirtie myles, (which might as well haue beene done by one man, and much more, for the value of a pound of Copper at a seasonable tyme) they had the Pinnace and all the Boats with th•m, but one that remained with me to serue the Fort. In their absence I followed the new begun workes of Pitch and Tarre, Glasse, Sope-ashes, and Clapboord, whereof some small quantities we haue sent you. But if you rightly consider, what an infinite toyle it is in Russia and Swethland, where the woods are proper for naught els, and though there be the helpe both of man and beast in those ancient Common-wealths, which many an hundred yeares haue vsed it, yet thousands of those poore people can scarce g•t necessaries to liue, but from h•nd to mouth. And though your Factors there can buy as much in a week as will fraught you a ship, or as much as you please; you must not expect from vs any such matter, which are but a many of ignorant miserable soules, that are scarce able to get wherewith to liue, and defend our selues against the inconstant Salvages: fin∣ding but here and there a tree fit for the purpose, and want all things els the Rus∣sians haue. For the Coronation of P•whatan, by whose advice you sent him such presents, I know not; but this giue me leaue to tell you, I feare th•y will be the con∣fusion of vs all ere we heare from you againe. At your Ships arrivall, the Salvages harvest was newly gathered, and we going to buy it, our owne not being halfe suf∣ficient for so great a number. As for the two ships loading of Corne N•wport pr•∣mised to provide vs from Powhatan, he brought vs but foureteene Bushels; and from the Monacans nothing, but the most of the men sicke and neare famished. From your Ship we had not provision in victuals worth twenty pound, and we are more then two hundred to liue vpon this: the one halfe sicke, the other little better. For the Saylers (I confesse) they daily make good cheare, but our dyet is a little meale and water, and not sufficient of that. Though there be fish in the Sea, foules in the ayre, and Beasts in the woods, their bounds are so large, they so wilde, and we so weake and ignorant, we cannot much trouble them. Captaine Newport we much suspect to be the Authour of those inventions. Now that you should know, I haue made you as great a discovery as he, for lesse charge then he spendeth you e∣very meale; I haue sent you this Mappe of the Bay and Rivers, with an annexed Relation of the Countries and Nations that inhabit them, as you may see at large. Also two barrels of stones, and such as I take to be good Iron ore at the least; so de∣vided, as by their notes you may see in what places I found them. The Souldiers say many of your officers maintaine their families out of that you send vs: and that Newport hath an hundred pounds a yeare for carrying newes. For every master you haue yet sent can find the way as well as he, so that an hundred pounds might be spared, which is more then we haue all, th•t helpe to pay him wages. Cap. Rat∣liffe is now called Sickl•more, a poore counterfeited Imposture. I haue sent you him home, least the company should cut his throat. What he is, now every one can tell you: if he and Archer returne againe, they are sufficient to keepe vs alwayes in fa∣ctions. When you send againe I intreat you rather send but thirty Ca•penters, hus∣bandmen, gardiners, fisher men, blacksmiths, masons, and diggers vp of trees, roots, well provided; then a thousand of such as we haue: for except wee be able both to lodge them, and feed them, the most will consume with want of necessaries before they can be made good for any thing. Thus if you please to consider this account, and of the vnnecessary wages to Captaine Newport, or his ships so long lingering and staying here (for notwithstanding his boasting to leaue vs victuals for 12 mon•ths, though we had 89 by this discovery lame and sicke, and but a pinte of Corne a day for a man, we were constrained to giue him three hogsheads of that to victuall him homeward) or yet to send into Germany or Poleland for glasse-men & the rest, till we be able to sustaine our selues, and relieue them when they come. It were bet∣ter to giue fiue hundred pound a tun for those grosse Commodities in Denmarke, then send for them hither, till more necessary things be provided. For in over-toy∣ling our weake and vnskilfull bodies, to satisfie this desire of present profit, we can scarce ever recover our selues from one Supply to another. And I humbly intreat you hereafter, let vs know what we should receiue, and not stand to the Saylers courtesie to leaue vs what they please, els you may charge vs with what you will, but we not you with any thing. These are the causes that haue kept vs in Virginia, from laying such a foundation, that •re this might haue given much better content and satisfaction; but as yet you must not looke for any profitable returnes: so I humbly rest.

    • Captaine Peter Winne,
    • Captaine Richard Waldo,
  • Master Francis VVest, brother to the Lord La VVarre.
  • Gent.
    • Thomas Graues.
    • Raleigh Chroshaw.
    • Gabriel Beadle.
    • Iohn Beadle.
    • Iohn Russell.
    • William Russell.
    • Iohn Cuderington.
    • William Sambage.
    • Henry Leigh.
    • Henry Philpot.
    • Harmon Harrison.
    • Daniel Tucker.
    • Henry Collins.
    • Hugh Wolleston.
    • Iohn Hoult.
    • Thomas Norton.
    • George Yarington.
    • George Burton.
    • Thomas Abbay.
    • William Dowman.
    • Thomas Maxes.
    • Michael Lowick.
    • Master Hunt.
    • Thomas F•rr•st.
    • Iohn Dauxe.
  • Trads∣men.
    • Thomas Ph•lps.
    • Iohn Prat.
    • Iohn Clarke.
    • Ieffrey Shortridge.
    • Dionis Oconor.
    • Hugh Winne.
    • Dauid ap Hugh.
    • Thomas Bradley.
    • Iohn Burra•.
    • Thomas L•vander.
    • Henry Bell.
    • Master Powell.
    • David Ellis.
    • Thomas Gibson.
  • La∣bou∣rers.
    • Thomas Dawse.
    • Thomas Mallard.
    • William Tayler.
    • Thomas Fox.
    • Nicholas Hancock.
    • Walker.
    • Williams.
    • Floud.
    • Morley.
    • Rose.
    • Scot.
    • Hardwyn.
  • Boyes.
    • Milman.
    • Hilliard.

Mistresse Forrest, and Anne Burras her maide; eight Dutch men and Poles, with some others, to the number of seaventie persons, &c.

These poore conclusions so affrighted vs all with famine, that the President pro∣vided for N•ndsamund, and tooke with him Captaine Winne, and Mr Scrivener, then returning from Captaine Newport. These people also long denied him not onely the 400 Baskets of Corne th•y promised, but any trade at all; (excusing themselues they had •pent most they had, and were commanded by Powhatan to keepe that they had, and not to let vs come into their river) till we were constrained to begin with them perforce. Vpon the discharging of our Muskets they all fled and shot not an Arrow; the first house we came to we set on fire, which when they perceiued, they desired we would make no more spoyle, and they would giue vs halfe they had: how they collected it I know not, but before night they loaded our three Boats; and so we returned to our quarter some foure myles downe the River, which was onely the open woods vnder the lay of a hill, where all the ground was covered with snow, and hard frozen; the snow we digged away and made a great fire in the place; when the ground was well dryed, we turned away the fire; and covering the place with a mat, there we lay very warme. To keepe vs from the winde we made a shade of another Mat; as the winde turned we turned our shade, and when the ground grew cold we remoued the fire. And thus many a cold winter night haue wee laine in this miserable manner, yet those that most commonly went vpon all those occa∣sions, were alwayes in health, lusty, and sat. For sparing them this yeare, the n•xt yeare they promised to plant purposely for vs; and so we returned to Iames towne. About this time there was a marriage betwixt Iohn Laydon and Anne Burras; which was the first marriage we had in Virginia.

Long he stayed not, but fitting himselfe and Captaine Waldo with two Barges. From Chawopoweanock, and all parts thereabouts, all the people were fled, as being iealous of our intents; till we discovered the riv•r and people of Apamatuck; where we found not much, that they had we equally divided, but gaue them copper, and such things as contented them in consideration. Master Scrivener and Lieutenant Percie went also abroad, but could find nothing.

The President seeing the procrastinating of time, was no course to liue, resolved with Captaine Waldo (whom he knew to be sure in time of need) to surprise Powha∣tan, and all his provision, but the vnwillingnesse of Captaine Winne, and Master Scrivener, for some private respect, plotted in England to ruine Captaine Smith, did their best to hinder their proiect; but the President whom no perswasions could perswade to starue, being invited by Powhatan to come vnto him: and if he would send him but men to build him a house, giue him a gryndstone, fiftie swords, some peeces, a cock and a hen, with much copper and beads, he would lo•d his Ship with Corne. The President not ignorant of his devises and subtiltie, yet vnwilling to neglect any opportunitie, presently sent three Dutch-men and two English, having so small allowance, few were able to doe any thing to purpose: knowing there nee∣ded no better a Castle to effect this proiect, tooke order with Captaine Waldo to se∣cond him, if need required; Scrivener he left his substitute, and set forth with th• Pinnace, two Barges, and fortie-six men, which onely were such as voluntarily of∣fered themselues for his Iourney, the which by reason of Mr Scriveners ill successe, was censured very desperate, they all knowing Smith would not returne emptie, if it were to be had; howsoever, it caused many of those that he had appointed, to find excuses to stay behinde.

CHAP. VIII. Captaine Smiths Iourney to Pamavnkee.

THe twentie-nine of December he set forward for Werowocomoco: his Compa∣ny were these;

In the Discovery Barge himselfe.

  • Gent.
    • Robert Behethland.
    • Nathanael Graues.
    • Iohn Russell.
    • Raleigh Chrashow.
    • Michael Sicklemore.
    • Richard Worley.
  • Soul∣diers.
    • Anas Todkill.
    • William Loue.
    • William Bentley.
    • Ieffrey Shortridge.
    • Edward Pising.
    • William Ward.

In the Pinnace.

  • Lieutenant Percie, brother to the Earle of Northum∣berland.
  • Master Francis West, brother to the Lord La Warre.
  • William Phittiplace, Captaine of the Pinnace.
  • Gent.
    • Michael Phittiplace.
    • Ieffrey Abbot, Serieant.
    • William Tankard.
    • George Yarington.
    • Iames Browne.
    • Edward Brinton.
    • George Burton.
    • Thomas Coe.
  • Ionas Profit, Ma∣ster.
  • Robert Ford, Clarke of the Councell.
  • Iohn Dods, Souldier.
  • Henry Powell, Souldier.

Thomas Gipson, David Ellis, Nathanael Peacock, Saylers. Iohn Prat, George Acrig, Iames Read, Nicholas Hancock, Iames Watkins, Thomas Lambert, foure Dutch-men, and Richard Salvage were sent by land before to build the house for Powhatan against our Arrivall.

This company being victualled but for three or foure dayes, lodged the first night at Warraskoyack, where the President tooke sufficient provision. This kind King did his best to divert him from seeing Powhatan, but perceiuing he could not prevaile, he advised in this manner. Captaine Smith, you shall find Powhatan to vse you kind∣ly, but trust him not, and be sure he haue no oportunitie to seize on your Armes; for he hath sent for you onely to cut your throats. The Captaine thanking him for his good counsell: yet the better to try his loue, desired guides to Chawwonock; for he would send a present to that King, to bind him his friend. To performe this iour∣ney was sent Mr Sicklemore, a very valiant, honest, and a painefull Souldier: with him two guides, and directions how to seeke for the lost company of Sir Walter Ra∣leighs, and silke Grasse. Then we departed thence, the President assuring the King perpetuall loue; and left with him Samu•l Collier his Page to learne the Language.

So this Kings deeds by sacred Oath adiur’d.

More wary proues, and circumspect by ods:
Fearing at least his double forfeiture;
To offend his friends, and sin against his Gods.

The next night being lodged at Kecoughtan; six or seaven dayes the extreame winde, rayne, frost and snow caused vs to keepe Christmas among the Salvages, where we were never more merry, nor fed on more plentie of good Oysters, Fish, Flesh, Wild-soule, and good bread; nor never had better fires in England, then in the dry, smoaky houses of Kecoughtan: but departing thence, when we found no houses we were not curious in any weather to lye three or foure nights together vnder the trees by a fire, as formerly is sayd. An hundred fortie eight foules the President, An∣thony Bagnall, and Serieant Pising did kill at three shoots. At Kiskiack the frost & con∣trary winds forced vs three or foure dayes also (to suppresse the insolency of those proud Salvages) to quarter in their houses, yet guard our Barge, and cause them giue vs what we wanted; though we were but twelue and himselfe, yet we never wanted shelter where we found any houses. The 12 of Ianuary we arrived at Wero∣wocomoco, where the river was frozen neare halfe a myle from the shore; but to neg∣lect no time, the President with his Barge so far had approached by breaking the ice, as the ebbe left him amongst those oasie shoules, yet rather then to lye there frozē to death, by his owne example he taught them to march neere middle deepe, a flight shot through this muddy frozen oase. When the Barge floated, he appoynted two or three to returne her aboord the Pinnace. Where for want of water in melting the ice, they made fresh water, for the river there was salt. But in this march Mr Russell, (whom none could perswade to stay behinde) being somewhat ill, and exceeding heauie, so overtoyled himselfe as the rest had much adoe (ere he got ashore) to re∣gaine life into his dead benummed spirits. Quartering in the next houses we found, we sent to Powhatan for provision, who sent vs plentie of bread, Turkies, and Veni∣son; the next day having feasted vs after his ordinary manner, he began to aske v•, when we would be gone: fayning he sent not for vs, neither had he any corne; and his people much lesse: yet for fortie swords he would procure vs fortie Baskets. The President shewing him the men there present that brought him the message and conditions, asked Powhatan how it chanced he became so forgetfull; thereat the King concluded the matter with a merry laughter, asking for our Commodities, but none he liked without gunnes and swords, valuing a Basket of Corne more precious then a Basket of Copper; saying he could rate his Corne, but not the Copper.

Captaine Smith seeing the intent of this subtill Salvage began to deale with him after this manner. Powhatan, though I had many courses to haue made my provision,yet beleeving your promises to supply my wants, I neglected all to satisfie your desire: and to testi∣fie my loue, I sent you my men for your building, neglecting mine owne. What your people had you haue ingrossed, forbidding them our trade: and now you thinke by consuming the time, we shall consume for want, not having to fulfill your strange demands. As for swords and gunnes, I told you long agoe I had none to spare; and you must know those I haue can keepe me from want: yet steale or wrong you I will not, nor dissolue that friendship we haue mutu∣ally promised, except you constraine me by our bad vsage.

The King having attentiuely listned to this Discourse, promised that both he and his Country would spare him what he could, the which within two dayes they should receiue.Yet Captaine Smith, sayth the King, some doubt I haue of your comming hither, that makes me not so kindly seeke to relieue you as I would: for many doe informe me, your comming hi∣ther is not for trade, but to invade my people, and possesse my Country, who dare not come to bring you Corne, seeing you thus armed with your men. To free vs of this feare, leaue aboord your weapons, for here they are ne•alesse, we being all friends, and for ever Powhatans.

With many such discourses they spent the day, quartering that night in the Kings houses. The next day he renewed his building, which hee little intended should proceede. For the Dutch-men finding his plentie, and knowing our want, and percei∣ving his preparations to surprise vs, little thinking we could escape both him and fa∣mine; (to obtaine his favour) revealed to him so much as they knew of our estates and proiects, and how to prevent them. One of them being of so great a spirit, iudge∣ment, and resolution, and a hireling that was certaine of his wages for his labour, and ever well vsed both he and his Countrymen; that the Pr•sident knew not whom better to trust; and not knowing any fitter for that imployment, had sent him as a spy to discover Powhatans intent, then little doubting his honestie, nor could ever be certaine of his villany till neare halfe a yeare after.

Whilst we •xpected the comming in of the Country, we wrangled out of the King ten quarters of Corne for a copper Kettell, the which the President perceiving him much to affect, valued it at a much greater rate; but in regard of his scarcity he would accept it, provided we should haue as much more the next yeare, or els the Coun∣try of Monacan. Wherewith each seemed well contented, and Powhatan began to expostulate the difference of Peace and Warre after this manner.

Captaine Smith, you may vnderstand that I having seene the death of all my people thrice,and not any one liuing of those three generations but my selfe; I know the difference of Peace and Warre better then any in my Country. But now I am old and ere long must die, my bre∣thren namely Opitchapam, Opechancanough, and Kekataugh my two sisters, and their two daughters, are distinctly each others successors. I wish their experience no lesse then mine, and your loue to them no lesse then mine to you. But this bruit from Nandsamund, that you are come to destroy my Country, so much affrighteth all my people as they dare not visit you. What will it availe you to take that by force you may quickly haue by loue, or to destroy them that provide you food. What can you get by warre, when we can hide our provisions and fly to the woods? whereby you must famish by wronging vs your friends And why are you thus iealous of our loues seeing vs vnarmed, and both doe, and are willing still to feede you, with that you cannot get but by our labours? Thinke you I am so simple, not to know it is better to eate good meate, lye well, and sleepe quietly with my women and children, laugh and be mer∣ry with you, haue copper, hatchets, or what I want being your friend: then be forced to flie from all, to lie cold in the woods, feede vpon Acornes, rootes, and such trash, and be so hun∣ted by you, that I can neither rest, eate, nor sle•pe; but my tyred men m•st watch, and if a twig but breake, every one cryeth there commeth Captaine Smith: then must I fly I know not whether: and thus with miserable feare, end my miserable life, leauing my pleasures to such youths as you, which through your rash vnaduisednesse may quickly as miserably end, for want of that, you never know where to finde. Let this ther•fore assur• you of our loues, and every yeare our friendly trade shall furnish you with Corne; and now also, if you would come in friendly manner to see vs, and not thus with your guns and swords as to invade your foes. To this subtill discourse, the President thus replyed.

Seeing you will not rightly conceiue of our words, we striue to make you know our thoughts by our deeds; the vow I made you of my loue, both my selfe and my men haue kept. As for your promise I find it euery day violated by some of your subiects: yet we finding your loue and kindnesse, our custome is so far from being vngratefull, that for your sake onely, we haue cur∣bed our thirsting desire of revenge; els h•d they knowne as well the crueltie we vse to our ene∣mies, as our true loue and courtesie to our friends. And I thinke your iudg•ment sufficient to conceiue, as well by the adventures we haue vndertaken, as by the advantage we haue (by our Armes) of yours: that had we intended you any hurt, long ere this we could haue effected it. Your people comming to Iames Towne are entertained with their Bowes and Arrowes with∣out any exceptions; we esteeming it with you as it is with vs, to weare our armes as our appa∣rell. As for the danger of our enemies, in such warres consist our chiefest pleasure: for your riches we haue no vse: as for the hiding your provision, or by your flying to the woods, we shall not so vnadvisedly starue as you conclude, your friendly care in that behalfe is needlesse, for we haue a rule to finde beyond your knowledge.

Many other discourses they had, till at last they began to trade. But the King see∣ing his will would not be admitted as a law, our guard dispersed, nor our men dis∣armed, he (sighing) breathed his minde once more in this manner.

Captaine Smith, I neuer vse any Werowance so kindely as your selfe, yet from you I receiue the least kindnesse of any. Captaine Newport gaue me swords, copper, cloathes, a bed, towels, or what I desired; euer taking what I offered him, and would send away his gunnes when I intreated him: none doth deny to lye at my feet, or refuse to doe what I desire, but onely you; of whom I can haue nothing but what you regard not, and yet you will haue whatsoeuer you demand. Captaine Newport you call father, and so you call me; but I see for all vs both you will doe what you list, and we must both seeke to content you. But if you in∣tend so friendly as you say, send hence your armes, that I may beleeue you; for you see the loue I beare you, doth cause me thus nakedly to forget my selfe.

Smith seeing this Salvage but trifle the time to cut his throat, procured the salva∣ges to breake the ice, that his Boate might come to fetch his corne and him: and gaue order for more men to come on shore, to surprise the King, with whom also he but trifled the time till his men were landed: and to keepe him from suspicion, entertained the time with this reply.

Powhatan you must know, as I haue but one God, I honour but one King; and I liue not here as your subiect, but as your friend to pleasure you with what I can. By the gifts you bestow on me, you gaine more then by trade: yet would you visit mee as I doe you, you should know it is not our custome, to sell our curtesies as a vendible commodity. Bring all your countrey with you for your guard, I will not dislike it as being ouer iealous. But to content you, tomorrow I will leaue my Armes, and trust to your promise. I call you father indeed▪ and as a father you shall see I will loue you: but the small care you haue of such a childe caused my men persw•de m• to looke to my selfe.

By this time Powhatan hauing knowledge his m•n were ready whil•st the ice was a breaking, with his luggage women and children, fled. Yet to auoyd suspici∣on, left two or three of the women talking with the Captaine, whilest hee secretly ran away, and his men that secretly beset the house. Which being pr•sently discoue∣red to Captaine Smith, with his pistoll, sword, and target hee made such a passage a∣mong these naked Diuels; that at his first shoot, they next him rumbled one ouer a∣nother, and the rest quickly fled some one way some another: so that without any hurt, onely accompanied with Iohn Russell, hee obtained the c•rps du guard. When they perceiued him so well escaped, and with his eighteene men (for he had no more with him a s••re) to the vttermost of their skill they sought excuses to dissemble the matter: and Powhatan to excuse his flight and the sudden com•ing of this multi∣tude, sent our Captaine a great bracelet and a chaine of pearle, by an ancient Ora∣tour that bespoke vs to this purpose, perceiuing euen then from our Pinnace, a Barge and men departing and comming vnto vs.

Captaine Smith, our Werowance is fled, fearing your gunnes, and knowing when the ice was broken there would come more men, sent these numbers but to guard his corne from stealing, that might happen without your knowledge: now though some bee hurt by your ••sprision, yet Powhatan is your friend and so will for euer continue. Now since the ice is open, he would haue you send away your corne, and if you would haue his company, send away also your gunnes, which so affright his people, that they dare not come to you as hee pro∣mised they should.

Then hauing prouided baskets for our men to carry our corne to the boats, they kindly offered their seruice to guard our Armes, that none should steale them. A great many they were of goodly well proportioned fellowes, as grim as Diuels; yet the very sight of cocking our matches, and being to let fly, a few wordes caused them to leaue their bowes and arrowes to our guard, and beare downe our corne on their backes; wee needed not imp•rtune them to make dispatch. But our Bar∣ges being left on the oase by the ebbe, caused vs stay till the next high-water, •o that wee returned againe to our old quarter. Powhatan and his Dutch-men brusting with desire to haue the head of Captaine Smith, for if they could but kill him, they thought all was theirs, neglected not any oportunity to effect his purpose. The In∣dians with all the merry sports they could deuise, spent the time till night: then they all returned to Powhatan, who all this time was making ready his forces to surprise the house and him at supper. Notwithstanding the eternall all-seeing God did pre∣uent h••, and by a strange meanes. For Pocahontas his dearest iewell and daughter, in that darke night came through the irksome woods, and told our Captaine great cheare should be sent vs by and by: but Powhatan and all the power he could make, would after come k•ll vs all, if they that brought it could not kill vs with our owne weapons when we were at supper. Therefore if we would liue shee wished vs pre∣sently to bee gone. Such things as shee delighted in, he would haue giuen her: but with the teares running downe her cheekes, shee said shee durst not be seene to haue any: for if Powhatan should know it, she were but dead, and so shee ranne away by her selfe as she came. Within lesse then an houre came eight or ten lusty fellowes, with great platters of venison and other victuall, very importunate to haue vs put out our matches (whose smoake made them sicke) and sit down to our victuall. But the Captaine made them taste euery dish, which done hee sent some of them backe to Powhatan, to bid him make haste for hee was prepared for his comming. As for them hee knew they came to betray him at his supper: but hee would prevent them and all their other intended villanies: so that they might be gone. Not long after came more messengers, to see what newes; not long after them others. Thus wee spent the night as vigilantly as they, till it was high-water, yet seemed to the saluages as friendly as they to vs: and that wee were so desirous to giue Powhatan content, as hee requested, wee did leaue him Edward Brynton to kill him foule, an• the Dutch-men to finish his house; thinking at our returne from Pamavnkee the frost would be gone, and then we might finde a better oportunity if necessity did occa∣sion it, little dreaming yet of the Dutch-mens treachery, whose humor well suted this verse:

Is any free, that may not liue as freely as he list?

Let vs liue so, then w’are as free, and bruitish as the best.

CHAP. IX. How wee escaped surprising at Pamavnkee.

WE had no sooner set sayle but Powhatan returned, and sent Adam and Francis (two stout Dutch-men) to Iames towne: who faining to Cap∣taine Winne that all things were well, and that Captaine Smith had vse of their armes, wherefore they requested new (the which were giuen them) they told him their comming was for some extraordinary tooles, and shift of apparell; by which colourable excuse they obtained sixe or seauen more to their confederacie, such expert theeues, that presently furnished them with a great many swords, pike-heads, peeces, shot, powder and such like: Saluages they had at hand to carry it away, and the next day they returned vnsuspected, leauing their confe∣derates to follow, and in the interim to convay them such things as they could: for which seruice they should liue with Powhatan as his chiefe affected, free from those miseries that would happen the Colony. Samuel their other consort Powhatan kept for their pledge, whose diligence had prouided them three hundred of their kinde of hatchets; the rest fifty swords, eight peeces, and eight pikes. Brynton and Ri∣chard Salvage seeing the Dutch-men so diligent to accommodate the Saluages with weapons, attempted to haue gotten to Iames towne, but they were apprehended, and expected euer when to be put to death.

Within two or three dayes we arriued at Pamavnkee, the King as many dayes en∣tertained vs with feasting and much mirth. And the day appointed to beginne our trade, the President, Lieutenant Percie, Mr. West, Mr. Russell, Mr. Behethland, Mr. Crashaw▪ Mr. Powell, Mr. Ford, and some others to the number of fifteene, went vp to Opechancanoughshouse a quarter of a mile from the riuer) where wee found no∣thing but a lame fellow and a boy: and all the houses round about of all things aban∣doned. Not long wee stayed ere the King arriued, and after him came diuerse of his people loaden with bowes and arrowes: but such pinching commodities, and those esteemed at such a value, as our Captaine began with the King after this manner.

Opechancanough, the great loue you professe with your tongue, seemes meere deceit by your actions. Last yeere you kindly fraughted out ship: but now you haue inuited mee to starue with hunger: you know my want, and I your plenty; of which by some meanes I must haue part: remember it is fit for Kings to keepe their promise. Here are my commodities; whereof take your choice, the rest I will proportion fit bargains for your pe•ple.

The King seemed kindly to accept his offer, and the better to colour his proiect, sold vs what they had to our owne content, promising the next day more company, better prouided. The Barges and Pinnace being committed to the charge of Mr. Phetiplace; the President with his old fifteene marched vp to the Kings house, where wee found foure or fiue men newly arriued, each with a great basket. Not long af∣ter came the King, who with a strained cheerfulnesse held vs with discourse what paines he had taken to keep his promise; till Mr. Russell brought vs in newes that we were all betrayed: for at least seuen hundred Saluages well armed, had inuironed the house, and beset the fields. The King coniecturing what Russell related, wee could well perceiue how the extremity of his feare bewrayed his intent: whereat some of our company seeming dismaied with the thought of such a multitude; the Captaine encouraged vs to this effect.

Worthy Countrey-men,were the mischiefes of my seeming friends no more then the danger of these enemies, I little cared were they as many more: if you dare doe, but as I. But this is my torment, that if I escape them, our malicious Councell with their open mouthed Mini∣ons, will make me such a peace breaker (in their opinions in England) as will breake my necke. I could wish those here, that make these seeme Saints, and me an oppressor. But this is the worst of all, wherein I pray you aid mee with your opinions. Should wee beginne with them and surprise the King, we cannot keepe him and defend well our selues. If wee should each kill our man, and so proceed with all in the house; the rest will all fly: then shall wee get no more then the bodies that are slaine, and so starue for victuall. As for their fury it is the least danger, for well you know, being alone assaulted with two or three hundred of them, I made them by the helpe of God compound to saue my life. And wee are sixteene, and they but seauen hundred at the most; and assure your selues, God will so assist vs, that if you dare stand but to discharge your pieces, the very smoake will bee sufficient to affright them. Yet howsoeuer, let vs fight like men, and not die like sheepe: for by that meanes you know God hath oft deliuered mee, and so I trust will now. But first, I will deale with them, to bring it to passe wee may fight for something, and draw them to it by conditions. If you like this motion, promise me you will be valiant.

The time not permitting any argument, all vowed to execute whatsoeuer hee attempted, or die: whereupon the Captaine in plaine tearmes told the King this.

I see Opechancanough your plot to murder me, but I feare it not.As yet your men and mine haue done no harme, but by our direction. Take therefore your Armes, you see mine, my body shall bee as naked as yours: the Isle in your riuer is a fit place, if you be con∣tented: and the conquerour (of vs two) shall be Lord and Master ouer all our men. If you haue not enough, take time to fetch more, and bring what number you will; so euery one bring a basket of corne, against all which I will stake the value in copper, you see I haue but fif∣teene, and our game shall be, the Conquerour take all.

The King being guarded with forty or fifty of his chiefe men, seemed kindly to appease Smiths suspicion of vnkindnesse, by a great present at the doore, they intrea∣ted him to receiue. This was to draw him out of the doore, where the bait was guarded with at least two hundred men, and thirty lying vnder a great tree (that lay thwart as a barricado) each his arrow nocked ready to shoot. The President com∣manded one to go see what what kind of deceit this was, and to receiue the present; but hee refused to doe it: yet the Gentlemen and all the rest were importunate to goe, but he would not permit them, being vexed at that Coward: and commanded Lieutenant Percie, Master West, and the rest to make good the house; Master Powell and Master Behethland he commanded to guard the doore, and in such a rage snat∣ched the King by his long locke in the middest of his men,with his Pistoll readie bent against his brest. Thus he led the trembling King, neare dead with feare a∣mongst all his people: who delivering the Captaine his Vambrace, Bow, and Ar∣rowes, all his men were easily intreated to cast downe their Armes, little dreaming any durst in that manner haue vsed their King: who then to escape himselfe be∣stowed his presents in good sadnesse, and causing a great many of them come be∣fore him vnarmed, holding the King by the hayre (as is sayd) he spake to them to this effect.

I see (you Pamavnkees) the great desire you haue to kill me, and my long suffering your in∣iuries hath imboldened you to this presumption. The cause I haue forborne your insolencies,is the promise I made you (before the God I serue) to be your friend, till you giue me iust cause to be your enemy. If I keepe this vow, my God will keepe me, you cannot hurt me, if I breake it, he will destroy me. But if you shoot but one Arrow to shed one drop of bloud of any of my men, or steale the least of these Beads, or Copper, I spurne here before you with my foot; you shall see I will not cease revenge (if once I begin) so long as I can heare where to finde one of your Nation that will not deny the name of Pamavnk. I am n•t now at Rassaweak halfe drowned with myre, where you tooke me prisoner; yet then for keeping your promise and your good vsage and saving my life, I so affect you, that your denyals of your trechery, doe halfe perswade me to mistake my selfe. But if I be the marke you ayme at, here I stand, shoot he that dare. You promised to fraught my Ship ere I departed, and so you shall, or I meane to load her with your dead carcasses, yet if as friends you will come and trade, I once more pro∣mise not to trouble you, except you giue me the first occasion, and your King shall be free and be my friend, for I am not come to hurt him or any of you.

Vpon this away went their Bowes and Arrowes, and men, women, and children brought in their Commodities: two or three houres they so thronged about the President and so overwearied him, as he retyred himselfe to rest, leauing Mr Beheth∣land and Mr Powell to receiue their presents, but some Salvages perceiuing him fast asleepe, & the guard somewhat carelesly dispersed, fortie or 〈◊〉 of their choi•e men each with a club, or an English sword in his hand began to enter the house with two or three hundred oth•rs, that pressed to second them. The noyse and hast they made in, did so shake the house they awoke him from his sleepe, and being halfe amazed with this suddaine sight, bet•oke him strait to his sword and Target; Mr Chrashaw and some others charged in like manner; whereat they quickly thronged faster backe then before forward. The house thus cleansed, the King and some of his auncients we kept yet with him, who with a long Oration, excused this intrusion. The rest of the day was spent with much kindnesse, the companie againe renewing their pre∣sents with their best provisions, and whatsoever he gaue them they seemed there∣with well contented.

Now in the meane while since our departure, this hapned at our Fort. Master Scrivener having receiued Letters from England to make himselfe either Caesar or no∣thing, he began to decline in his affection to Captaine Smith, that ever regarded him as himselfe, and was willing to crosse the surprising of Powhatan▪ Some certaine daies after the Presidents departure, he would needs goe visit the Isle of Hogs, and tooke with him Captaine Waldo (though the President had appointed him to be ready to second his occasions) with MrAnthony Gosnoll and eight others; but so violent was the wind (that extreame frozen time) that the Boat sunke, but where or how none doth know. The Skiff was much over loaden, and would scarce haue liued in that extreame tempest had she beene empty: but by no perswasion he could be di∣verted, though both Waldo and an hundred others doubted as it hapned. The Sal∣vages were the first that round their bodies, which so much the more encouraged them to effect their proiects. To advertise the President of this heavie newes, none could be found would vndertake it, but the Iorney was often refused of all in the Fort, vntill Master Richard Wyffin vndertooke alone the performance thereof.

In this Iourney he was incountred with many dangers and difficulties in all parts as he passed. As for that night he lodged with Powhatan, perceiuing such prepara∣tion for warre, not finding the President there: he did assure himselfe some mischiefe was intended. Pocahontas hid him for a time, and sent them who pursued him the cleane contrary way to seeke him; but by her meanes and extraordinry bribes and much trouble in three dayes travell, at length he found vs in the middest of these turmoyles. This vnhappy newes the President swore him to conceale from the com∣pany, and so di••embling his sorrow with the best countenances he could, when the night approched went safely aboord with all his Souldiers; leauing Opechancanough at libertie, according to his promise, the better to haue Powhatan in his returne.

Now so extreamely Powhatan had threatned the death of his men, if they did not by some meanes kill Captaine Smith; that the next day they appointed all the coun∣trey should come to trade vnarmed: yet vnwilling to be trecherous, but that they were constrained, hating fighting with him almost as ill as hanging, such feare they had of bad successe. The next morning the Sunne had not long appeared, but the fields appeared covered with people and Baskets, to tempt vs on shore: but nothing was to be had without his presence, nor they would not indure the sight of a gun. When the President saw them begin to depart, being vnwilling to loose such a boo∣tie, he so well conceived the Pinnace, and his Barges with Ambuscadoes, as onely with Lieutenant Percie, Mr West, and Mr Russell, with their Armes went on shore; others he appointed vnarmed to receiue what was brought. The Salvages flocked before him in heapes, and the banke serving as a trench for a retreat, he drew them fayre open to his Ambuscado’s. For he not being to be perswaded to goe visit their King▪ the King knowing the most of them vnarmed, came to visit him with two or three hundred men, in the forme of two halfe Moones; and with some twentie men, and many women loaden with painted Baskets. But when they approached some∣what neare vs, their women and children •led. For when they had environed and beset the fields in this manner, they thought their purpose sure, yet so trembled with feare as they were scarse able to ••ck their Arrowes: Smith standing with his three men ready bent, beholding them till they were within danger of our Ambuscado’s, who vpon the word di•cov•r•d themselues, and he retyred to the Barge. Which the Salvages no sooner perceived, then away they fled, esteeming their heeles for their best advan•age.

That night we sent Mr Chr•shaw, and Mr Ford to Iames towne to Cap. Winne▪ In the way betweene Wer•wocomoco and the Fort they met foure or fiue of the Dutch-mens Confederates going to Powhatan: the which to excuse those Gentlemens su∣spition of their running to the Salvages, returned to the Fort and there continued.

The Salvages hearing our Barge goe downe the river in the night, were so terri∣bly affrayde, that we sen• for more men (we having to much threatned their ruine, and the rasing of th•ir houses, boats, and wires) that the next day the King sent our Captaine a chayne of Pearle, to alter his purpose and stay his men: promising though they wanted t•emselues, to fraught our ship and bring it aboord to avoyd suspition. So that fiue or six dayes after, from all parts of the Country within ten or twelue myles in the extreame frost and snow, they brought vs provision on their naked backes.

Yet notwithstanding this kindnesse and trade, had their art and poyson beene suf∣ficient, the President, with Mr West, and some others had beene poysoned; it made them sicke, but exp•ll•d it selfe. Wecuttanow, a stout young fellow, knowing he was suspected for bringing this present of poyson, with fortie or fiftie of his chiefe com∣panions (seeing the President but with a few men at Potavneak) so proudly braued it, as though he expected to incounter a revenge. Which the President perceiving in the midst of hi• company, did not onely beate, but spurned him like a dogge, as scorning to doe h•m any worse mischiefe. Wherevpon all of them fled into the woods, thinking they had done a great matter to haue so well escaped: and the townsmen remaining presently fraughted our Barge to be rid of our companies, framing many ••c•ses to excuse Wecuttanow, (being sonne to their chiefe King, but Po•hatan) and told vs if we would shew them him that brought the poyson, they would deliver him to vs to punish as we pleased. Men may thinke it strange there should be such a stirre for a little corne, but had it beene gold with more ease wee might haue got it; and had it wanted, the whole Colony had starued. Wee may be thought very patient to endure all those iniuries, yet onely with fearing them wee got what they had. Whereas if we had taken revenge, then by their losse, we should haue lost our selues. We searched also the Countries of Youghtanund and Mattapa∣nient, where the people imparted that little they had with such complaints and teares from the eyes of women and children, as he had beene too cruell to haue beene a Christian, that would not haue beene satisfied and moued with compassion. But had this hapned in October, November, and December, when that vnhappie disco∣very of Monacan was made, we might haue fraughted a ship of fortie tuns, and twise as much might haue beene had from the Rivers of Rapahanock, Patawo∣mek, and Pawtuaunt.

The maine occasion of our thus temporizing with them was, to part friends as we did, to giue the lesse cause of suspition to Powhatan to fly, by whom we now retur∣ned with a purpose to haue surprised him and his provision. For effecting whereof (when we came against the Towne) the President sent Mr Wyffin and Mr Coe ashore to discover and make way for his intended proiect. But they found that those dam∣ned Dutch-men had caused Powhatan to abandon his new house and Werowocomoco, and to carry away all his corne and provision: and the people they found so ill affec∣ted, that they were in great doubt how to escape with their liues. So the President finding his intent frustrated, and that there was nothing now to be had, and there∣fore an vnfit time to revenge their abuses, sent Master Michael Phittiplace by Land to Iames towne, whether we sayled with all the speed we could; wee having in this Iourney (for 25•. of Copper, and 50•. of Iron & Beads) enough to keepe 46 men six weekes, and every man for his reward a moneths provision extraordinary (no Trade being allowed but for the store) we got neare •00• waight of deere suct, and delive∣red to the Cape Merchant 479 Bushels of Corne.

Those temporizing proceedings to some may seeme too charitable, to such a dai∣ly daring trecherous people: to others not pleasing, that we washed not the gr•und with their blouds, nor shewed such strange inventions in mangling, murdering, ran∣sacking, and destroying (as did the Spanyards) the simple bodies of such ignorant soules; nor delightfull, because not stuffed with Relations of heapes and ioynes of gold and silver, nor such rare commodities, as the Portugals and Spany•rds found in the East and West Indies. The want whereof hath begot vs (that were the first vnder∣takers) no lesse sco•ne and contempt, then the noble conquests and valiant adven∣tures beautified with it, prayse and honour. Too much I confesse the world cannot attribute to their ever memorable merit: and to cleare vs from the blind worlds ig∣norant censure, these few words may suffice any reasonable vnderstanding.

It was the Spanyards good hap to happen in those parts where were infinite num∣bers of people, who had manured the ground with that providence, it affoorded vic∣tualls at all times. And time had brought them to that perfection, they had the vse of gold and silver, and the most of such commodities as those Countries affoorded: so that, what the Spanyard got was chiefely the spoyle and pillage of those Countrey people, and not the labours of their owne hands. But had those fruitfull Countries beene as salvage, as barbarous, as ill peopled, as little planted, laboured, and manu∣red, as Virginia: their proper labours it is likely would haue produced as small pro∣fit as ours. But had Virginia beene peopled, planted, manured, and adorned with such store of precious Iewels, and rich commodities as was the Indies: then had we not gotten and done as much as by their examples might be expected from vs, the world might then haue traduced vs and our merits, and haue made shame and infa∣my our recompence and reward.

But we chanced in a Land even as God made it, where we found onely an idle, im∣provident, scattered people, ignorant of the knowledge of gold or silver, or any com∣modities, and carelesse of any thing but from hand to mouth, except bables of no worth; nothing to incourage vs, but what accidentally we found Nature afforded. Which ere we could bring to recompence our paines, defray our charges, and sa∣tisfie our Adventurers; we were to discover the Countrey, subdue the people, bring them to be tractable, civill, and industrious, and teach them trades, that the fruits of their labours might make vs some recompence, or plant such Colonies of our owne, that must first make prouision how to liue of themselues, ere they can bring to per∣fection the commodities of the Country: which doubtlesse will be as commodious for England as the west Indies for Spaine, if it be rightly mannaged: notwithstanding all our home-bred opinions, that will argue the contrary, as formerly some haue done against the Spanyards and Portugalls. But to conclude, against all rumor of o∣pinion, I onely say this, for those that the three first yeares began this Plantation; notwithstanding all their factions, mutinies, and miseries, so gently corrected, and well prevented: pervse the Spanish Decades; the Relations of Master Hackl••, and tell me how many ever with such small meanes as a Barge of 22 tuns, sometimes with seauen, eight, or nine, or but at most, twelue or sixteene men, did ever discover so many fayre and navigable Rivers, subiect so many severall Kings, people, and Nati∣ons, to obedience, and contribution, with so little bloudshed.

And if in the search of those Countries we had hapned where wealth had beene, we had as surely had it as obedience and contribution, but if we haue overskipped it, we will not enuie them that shall find it: yet can we not but lament, it was our fortunes to end when we had but onely learned how to begin, and found the right course how to proceed.

By Richard Wyffin, William Phittiplace, Ieffrey Abbot, and Anas Todkill.

CHAP. X. How the Salvages became subiect to the English.

WHen the Ships departed, all the provision of the Store (but that the Pre∣sident had gotten) was so rotten with the last Summers rayne, and ea∣ten with Rats and Wormes, as the Hogges would scarcely eate it. Yet it was the Souldiers dyet till our returnes, so that we found nothing done, but our victuals spent, and the most part of our tooles, and a good part of our Armes conveyed to the Salvages. But now casting vp the Store, and finding sufficient till the next harvest, the feare of starving was abandoned, and the company divided into tens, fifteens, or as the businesse required; six houres each day was spent in worke, the rest in Pastime and merry exercises, but the vntowardnesse of the greatest num∣ber caused the President advise as followeth.

Countrymen, the long experience of our late miseries,I hope is sufficient to perswade eve∣ry one to a present correction of himselfe, and thinke not that either my pains, nor the Adven∣turers purses, will ever maintaine you in idlenesse and sloath. I speake not this to you all, for divers of you I know deserue both honour and reward, better then is yet here to be had: but the greater part must be more industrious, or starue, how euer you haue beene heretofore tollerated by the authoritie of the Councell, from that I haue often commanded you. You see now that power resteth wholly in my selfe: you must obey this now for a Law, that he that will not worke shall not eate (except by sicknesse he be disabled:) for the labours of thirtie or fortie honest and industrious men shall not be consumed to maintaine an hundred and fiftie idle loyterers. And though you presume the authoritie here is but a shadow, and that I dare not touch the liues of any but my owne must answer it: the Letters patents shall each weeke be read to you, whose Contents will tell you the contrary. I would wish you therefore without contempt seeke to obserue these orders set downe, for there are now no more Counsellers to protect you, nor curbe my endevours. Therefore he that offendeth, let him assuredly expect his due punishment.

He made also a Table, as a publicke memoriall of every mans deserts, to incourage the good, and with shame to spurre on the rest to amendment. By this many became very industrious, yet more by punishment performed their businesse, for all were so tasked, that there was no excuse could prevaile to deceiue him: yet the Dutch-mens consorts so closely convayed them powder, shot, swords, and tooles, that though we could find the defect, we could not finde by whom, till it was too late.

All this time the Dutch men remaining with Powhatan, (who kindly entertained them to instruct the Salvages the vse of our Armes) and their consorts not following them as they expected; to know the cause, they sent Francis their companion, a stout young fellow, disguised like a Salvage, to the Glasse-house, a place in the woods neare a myle from IamesTowne; where was their Rendezvous for all their vnsus∣pected villany. Fortie men they procured to lie in Ambuscado for Captaine Smith, who no sooner heard of this Dutch-man, but he sent to apprehend him (but he was gone) yet to crosse his returne to Powhatan, the Captaine presently dispatched 20. shot after him, himselfe returning from the Glasse-house alone. By the way he in∣countred the King of Pasp•hegh, a most strong stout Salvage, whose perswasions not being able to perswade him to his Ambush, seeing him onely armed but with a fau∣•heon, attempted to haue shot him, but the President prevented his shoot by grapling with him, and the Salvage as well prevented him for drawing his faucheon, and per∣force bore him into the River to haue drowned him. Long they strugled in the wa∣ter, till the President got such hold on his throat, he had neare strangled the King; but having drawne his faucheon to cut off his head, seeing how pittifully he begged his life, he led him prisoner to IamesTowne, and put him in chaynes.

The Dutch-man ere long was also brought in, whose villany though all this time it was suspected, yet he fayned such a formall excuse, that for want of language Cap∣taine Winnevnderstood him not rightly, and for their dealings with Powhatan, that to saue their liues they were constrained to accommodate his armes, of whom he ex∣treamely complained to haue detained them perforce, and that he made this escape with the hazard of his life, and meant not to haue returned, but was onely walking in the woods to gather Walnuts. Yet for all this faire tale, there was so small appea∣rance of truth, and the plaine confession of Paspahegh of his trechery, he went by the heeles: Smith purposing to regaine the Dutch-men, by the saving his life. The poore Salvage did his best by his daily messengers to Powhatan, but all returned that the Dutch-men would not returne, neither did Powhatan stay them; and to bring them fiftie myles on his mens backes they were not able. Daily this Kings wiues, chil∣dren, and people came to visit him with presents, which he liberally bestowed to make his peace. Much trust they had in the Presidents promise: but the King fin∣ding his guard negligent, though fettered yet escaped. Captaine Winne thinking to pursue him found such troupes of Salvages to hinder his passage, as they exchanged many vollies of shot for flights of Arrowes. Captaine Smith hearing of this in re∣turning to the Fort, tooke two Salvages prisoners, called Kemps and Tussore, the two most exact villaines in all the Country. With these he sent Captaine Winne and fiftie choise men, and Lieutenant Percie, to haue regained the King, and revenged this iniury, and so had done, if they had followed his directions, or beene advised with those two villaines, that would haue betrayed both King & kindred for a peece of Copper, but he trifling away the night, the Salvages the next morning by the rising of the Sunne, braved him to come ashore to fight: a good time both sides let fly at other, but we heard of no hurt, onely they tooke two Canowes, burnt the Kings house, and so returned to Iames towne.

The President fearing those Bravado’s would but incourage the Salvages, began againe himselfe to try his conclusions, whereby six or seauen were slaine, as many made prisoners. He burnt their houses, tooke their Boats, with all their fishing wires, and planted some of them at Iames towne for his owne vse, and now resolved not to cease till he had revenged himselfe of all them had iniured him. But in his iourney passing by Paspahegh towards Chickahamania, the Salvages did their best to draw him to their Ambuscadoes; but seeing him regardlesly passe their Country, all shewed themselues in their bravest manner. To try their valours he could not but let fly, and ere he could land, they no sooner knew him, but they threw downe their armes and desired peace. Their Orator was a lustie young fellow called Okaning, whose worthy discourse deserveth to be remembred. And thus it was:

Captaine Smith, my Master is here present in the company, thinking it Capt. Winne, and not you, (of him he intended to haue beene revenged) having never offended him. If he hath offended you in escaping your imprisonment, the fishes swim, the foules fly, and the very beasts striue to escape the snare and liue. Then blame not him being a man. He would intreat you remember, you being a prisoner, what paines he tooke to saue your life. If since he hath iniured you he was compelled to it: but howsoeuer, you haue revenged it with our too great losse. We perceive and well know you intend to destroy vs, that are here to intreat and desire your friendship, and to enioy our houses and plant our fields, of whose fruit you shall participate: otherwise you will haue the worse by our absence; for we can plant any where, though with more labour, and we know you cannot liue if you want our harvest, and that reliefe we bring you. If you promise vs peace, we will beleeue you; if you proceed in revenge we will abandon the Country.

Vpon these tearmes the President promised them peace, till they did vs iniury, vpon condition they should bring in provision. Thus all departed goods friends, and so continued till Smith left the Countrey.

Arriving at Iames Towne, complaint was made to the President, that the Chicka∣hamanians, who all this while continued trade and seemed our friends, by colour thereof were the onely theeues. And amongst other things a Pistoll being stolne and the theefe fled, there was apprehended two proper young fellowes, that were bro∣thers, knowne to be his confederates. Now to regaine this Pistoll, the one was im∣prisoned, the other was sent to returne the Pistoll againe within twelue houres, or his brother to be hanged. Yet the President pittying the poore naked Salvage in the dungeon, sent him victuall and some Char-coale for a fire: ere midnight his bro∣ther returned with the Pistoll, but the poore Salvage in the dungeon was so smoo∣thered with the smoake he had made, and so pittiously burnt, that wee found him dead. The other most lamentably bewayed his death, and broke forth into such bit∣ter agonies, that the President to quiet him, told him that if hereafter they would not steale, he would make him aliue againe: but he little thought he could be reco∣vered. Yet we doing our best with Aqua vitae and Ʋineger, it pleased God to restore him againe to life, but so drunke & affrighted, that he seemed Lunaticke, the which as much tormented and grieued the other, as before to see him dead. Of which ma∣ladie vpon promise of their good behaviour, the President promised to recover him: and so caused him to be layd by a fire to sleepe, who in the morning having well slept, had recovered his perfect senses, and then being dressed of his burning, and each a peece of Copper giuen them, they went away so well contented, that this was spread among all the Salvages for a miracle, that Captaine Smith could make a man aliue that was dead.

Another ingenuous Salvage of Powhatans, having gotten a great bag of Powder, and the backe of an Armour, at Werowocomoco amongst a many of his companions, to shew his extraordinary skill, he did dry it on the backe as he had seene the Soul∣diers at Iames Towne. But he dryed it so long, they peeping over it to see his skill, it tooke fire, and blew him to death, and one or two more, and the rest so scorched, they had little pleasure to meddle any more with powder.

These and many other such pretty Accidents, so amazed and affrighted both Pow∣hatan, and all his people, that from all parts with presents they desired peace; retur∣ning many stolne things which we never demanded nor thought of; and after that, those that were taken stealing, both Powhatan and his people haue sent them backe to Iames towne, to receiue their punishment; and all the Country became absolute as free for vs, as for themselues.

CHAP. XI. What was done in three moneths having Victualls. The Store devoured by Rats, how we liued three moneths of such natu∣rall fruits as the Country affoorded.

NOw we so quietly followed our businesse, that in three moneths wee made three or foure Last of Tarre, Pitch, and Sope ashes; produced a tryall of Glasse; made a Well in the Fort of excellent sweet water, which till then was wanting; built some twentie houses; recovered our Church; provided Nets and Wires for fishing; and to stop the disorders of our disorderly theeues, and the Salvages, built a Blockhouse in the neck of our Isle, kept by a Garrison to entertaine the Saluages trade, and none to passe nor repasse Saluage nor Christian without the presidents order. Thirtie or forty Acres of ground we digged and planted. Of three sowes in eighteene moneths, increased 60, and od Piggs. And neere 500. chickings brought vp themselues without hauing any meat giuen them: but the Hogs were transported to Hog•Isle: where also we built a block-house with a garison to giue vs notice of any shipping, and for their exercise they made Clapbord and waynicot, and cut downe trees. We built also a fort for a retreat neere a conuement Riuer vpon a high commanding hill, very hard to be assalted and easie to be defended, but ere it was finished this defect caused a stay.

In searching our casked corne, we found it halfe rotten, and the rest so consumed with so many thousands of Rats that increased so fast, out there originall was from the ships, as we knew not how to keepe that little we had. This did driue vs all to our wits end, for there was nothing in the country but what nature afforded. Vntill this time Kemps and Tassorewere fettered prisoners, and did double taske and taught vs how to order and plant our fields: whom now for want of victuall we set at liberty, but so well they liked our companies they did not desire to goe from vs. And to ex∣presse their loues for 16. dayes continuance, the Countrie people brought vs (when least) 100. a day, of Squirrils, Turkyes, Deere and other wilde beasts: But this want of corne occasioned the end of all our works, it being worke sufficient to provide victu∣all. 60. or 80. with Ensigne Laxon was sent downe the riuer to liue vpon Oysters, and 20. with liutenant Percy to try for fishing at Poynt Comfort • but in six weekes they would not agree once to cast out the net, he being sicke and burnt fore with Gun-pouder. Master West with as many went vp to the falls, but nothing could be found but a few Acornes; of that in store euery man had their equall proportion. Till this present, by the hazard and indeuours of some thirtie or fortie, this whole Co∣lony had ever beene fed. We had more Sturgeon, then could be deuoured by Dog and Man, of which the industrious by drying and pounding, mingled with Caviar•, Sorell and other wholesome hearbes would make bread and good meate: others would gather as much Tockwhogh roots, in a day as would make them bread a weeke, so that of those wilde fruites, and what we caught, we liued very well in regard of such a diet, But such was the strange condition of some 150, that had they not beene forced nolens, volens, perforce to gather and prepare their victuall they would all haue starued or haue eaten one another. Of those wild fruits the Salvages often brought vs, and for that, the President would not fullfill the vnrea∣sonable desire, of those distracted Gluttonous Loyterers, to sell not only out kettles, hows, tooles, and Iron, nay swords, pieces, and the very Ordnance and howses, might they haue prevayled to haue beene but Idle: for those Saluage fruites, they would haue had imparted all to the Saluages, especially for one basket of Corne they heard of to be at Powhatās, fifty myles from our Fort. Though he bought neere halfe of it to satisfie their humors, yet to haue had the other halfe, they would haue sould their soules, though not sufficient to haue kept them a weeke. Thou∣sands were there exclamations, suggestions and deuises, to force him to those base inventions to haue made it an occasion to abandon the Country. Want perforce constrained him to indure their exclaiming follies, till he found out the author, one Dyer a most crafty fellow and his ancient Maligner, whom he worthily punished, and with the rest he argued the case in this maner.

Fellow souldiers, I did little thinke any so false to report, or so many to be so simple to be perswaded, that I either intend to starue you, or that Powhatan at this present hath corne for himselfe, much lesse for you; or that I would not haue it, if I knew where it were to be had. Neither and I thinke any so malitious as now I see a great many; yet it shal not so passio∣nate me, but I will doe my best for my most maligner. But dreame no longer of this vaine hope from Powhatan, not that I will longer forbeare to force you, from your Idlenesse, and punish you if you rayle. But if I finde any more runners for Newfoundland with the Pinnace, let him assuredly looke to ariue at the Gallows. You cannot deny but that by the hazard of my life many a time I haue saued yours, when (might your owne wills haue preuailed) you would haue starued; and will doe still whether I will or noe; But I protest by that God that made me, since necessitie hath not power to force you to gather for your selues those fruites the earth doth y•eld, you shall not onely gather for your selues, but those that are sicke. As yet I neuer had more from the stor• then the worst of you: and all my English extraordinary prouision that I haue, you shall see me diuide it amongst the sick. And this Sal∣uage trash you so scornfully repine at; being put in your mouthes your stomackes can disgest, if you would haue better you should haue brought it; and therefore I will take a course you shall prouide what is to be had. The sick shall not starue, but equally share of all our labours; and he that gathereth not every day as much as I doe, the next day shall be set beyond the riuer, and be banished from the Fort as a droue, till he amend his conditions or starue. But some would say with Seneca.

I know those things thou sayst are true good Nurse,

But fury forceth me to follow worse.
My man is burried headlong vp and downe:
Desiring better counsell, yet finds none.

This order many murmured was very cruell, but it caused the most part so well •••tirre themselues, that of 200. (•xcept they were drowned) there died not past seuen as: for Captaine Winne and Master Leigh they were dead ere this want hapned, and the rest dyed not so, want of •uch as preserued the rest. Many were billetted a∣mongst the Saluage, •h•r•oy we knew all their passages, fields and habitations, how t• gather and vse there fruits as well as themselues; for they did know wee had such a commanding power at Iamestowne they durst not wrong vs of a pin.

So well those poore Salvages vsed vs that were thus billetted, that diuers of the S•uldiers ran away to search Kemps & Tassore our old prisoners. Glad were these Sal∣vages to haue such an oportunity to testifie their loue vnto vs, for in stead of entertai∣ning them, and such things as they had stollen, with all their great Offers, and promises they made them how to reuenge their iniuryes vpon Captaine Smith; Kemps first mad• himselfe sport, in shewing his countrie men (•y them) how he was vsed, feeding •ē with this law, who would not work must not eat, till they were neere starued in •••de, continually threatning to beate them to death: neither could they get from him, till hee and his consorts brought them perforce to our Captaine, that so well contented him and punished them, as many others that in∣tended also to follow them, were rather contented to labour at home, then aduen∣ture to liue idl•ly amongst the Salvages; (of whom there was more hope to make bet∣ter Christians 〈◊〉 good subiects, then the one halfe of those that counterfeited them∣selues both.) For so affraide was 〈◊〉 those kings and the better sort of the people to dis∣please vs, that some of the baser sort that we haue extreamly hurt and punished for there villanies would hire vs, we should not tell it to their kings, or countrymen, who would also repunish them, and yet returne them to Iames towne to content the President for a testimony of their loues.

Master Sicklemore well returned from Chawwonoke; but found little hope and lesse certaintie of them were left by Sir Walter Raleigh. The riuer, he saw was not great, the people few, the countrey most over growne with pynes, where there did grow here and there straglingly Pemminaw, we call silke grasse. But by the riuer the ground was good, and exceeding furtill;

Master Nathanael powell and Anas Todkill were also by the Quiyoughquohanocks conducted to the Mangoags to search them there: but nothing could they learne but they were all dead. This honest proper good promise keeping king, of all the rest did euer best affect vs, and though to his false Gods he was very zealous, yet he would confesse our God as much exceeded his as our Gunns did his Bow and Ar∣rowes, often sending our President may presents, to pray to his God for raine or his corne would perish, for his Gods were angry. Three dayes iorney they conducted them through the wood•, into a high country towards the S••thwest: •here they saw here and there a little c•rne fi••d, by some little spring or smal brooke, but no riuer they could see: the pe••le in all re•pects like the rest, except there language: they liue most vpon rootes, fruites and wilde beast•; and trade with them towards the sea and the fatter countryes for dryed fish and corne, for sk•ns.

All this time to recouer the Dutch-men and one Bentley another fugitiue, we im∣ployed one Willi•m Ʋolday, a Zwitzar by birth, with Pardons & promises to regaine them. Little we then suspected this double villaine of any villany; who plainly taught vs, in the most trust was the greatest treason; for this wicked hypocrite, by the see∣ming hate he bore to the lewd conditions of his cursed country men, (hauing this oportunity by his imployment to regaine them) conuayed them euery thing they desired to e•fect their proiects, to distroy the Colony. With much deuotion they expected the Spaniard, to whom they intended good seruice, or any other, that would but carry them from vs. But to begin with the ••rst oportunity; th•• se•ing necessitie thus inforced vs to disperse our selues, importuned Powhatan to lend them but his forces, and they would not onely distroy our Hoggs, fire our towne, and betray our Pinnace; but bring to his seruice and subiection the most of our company. With this plot they had acquainted many Discontents, and many were agreed to their Deuilish practise. But one Thomas Douse, and Thomas Mallard (whose christian hearts relented at such an vnchristian act) voluntarily reuealed it to Captaine Smith, who caused them to conceale it, perswading •ouse and Mallard to proceed in their con∣fedracie: onely to bring the irreclamable Dutch men and the inconstant Salvages in such a maner amongst such Ambuscado’s as he had prepared▪ that not many of thē should returne from our Peninsula. But this brute cōming to the •ares of the impatiēt multitude they so importuned the President to cut off those Dutch men, as amongst many that offred to cut their throats bef•re the face of Powhatā, the first was Lieutenāt Percy, and Mr. Iohn Cuderington, two Gentlemen of as bold resolute spirits as could possibly be foūd. But the Presidēt had occasiō of other imploiment for them, & gaue gaue way to Master Wyffinand Sarieant Ieffrey Abbot, to goe and stab them or shoot them. But the Dutch men made such excuses, accusing Velday whom they supposed had reuealed their proiect, as Abbotwould not, yet Wyffing would, perceiuing it but de∣ceit. The King vnderstanding of this their imployment, sent presently his mes∣sengers to Captaine Smith to signifie it was not his fault to detaine them, nor hinder his men from executing his command: nor did he nor would he mantaine them, or any to occasion his disple•sure.

But whilst this businesse was in hand, Arriued one Captaine Argall, and Master Thomas Sedan, sent by Master Cornelius to truck with the Colony, and fish for Sturgeon, with a ship well furnished, with wine and much other good provision. Though it was not sent vs, our necessities was such as inforced vs to take it. He brought vs newes of a great supply and preparation for the Lord La Woore, with letters that much taxed our President for his heard dealing with the Salvages, and not retur∣ning the shippes fraughted. Notwithstanding we kept this ship tell the fleere arriued. True it is Argall lost his voyage, but we renictualled him, and sent him for England, with a true relation of the causes of our defailments, and how imposible it was to returne that wealth they expected, or obserue there instructions to indure the Sal∣vages insolencies, or doe any thing to any purpose, except they would send vs men and meanes that could produce that they so much desired: otherwises all they did was lost, and could not but come to confusion. The villany of Volday we still dissembled. Adam vpon his pardon came home but Samuell still stayed with Powhahan to heare further of their estates by this supply. Now all their plots Simth so well vnderstood; they were his best advantages to secure vs from any trechery, could be done by them or the Salvages: which with facility he could revenge when he would, because all those countryes more feared him then Powhatan, and hee had such parties with all his bordering neighbours: and many of the rest for loue or feare would haue done any thing he would haue them, vpon any commotion, though these fugitiues had done all they could to perswade Powhatan, King Iames would kill Smith, for vsing him and his people so vnkindly.

By this you may see for all those crosses, trecheries, and dissentions, how hee wrestled and overcame (without bloudshed) all that happened: also what good was done; how few dyed; what food the Countrey naturally affoordeth; what small cause there is men should starue, or be murthered by the Salvages, that haue discretion to mannage them with courage and industrie. The two first yeares, though by his adventures, he had oft brought the Salvages to a tractable trade, yet you see how the envious authoritie ever crossed him, and frustrated his best ende∣vours. But it wrought in him that experience and estimation amongst the Salvages, as otherwise it had bin impossible, he had ever effected that he did. Notwithstanding the many miserable, yet generous and worthy adventures, he had oft and long en∣dured in the wide world, yet in this case he was againe to learne his Lecture by ex∣perience. Which with thus much adoe having obtained, it was his ill chance to end, when he had but onely learned how to begin. And though he left those vn∣knowne difficulties (made easie and familiar) to his vnlawfull successors, (who onely by liuing in Iames Towne, presumed to know more then all the world could direct them:) Now though they had all his Souldiers, with a tripple power, and twice tripple better meanes; by what they haue done in his absence, the world may see what they would haue done in his presence, had he not prevented their indis∣cretions: it doth iustly proue, what cause he had to send them for England, and that he was neither factious, mutinous, nor dishonest. But they haue made it more plaine since his returne for England; having his absolute authoritie freely in their power, with all the advantages and opportunitie that his labours had effected. As I am sorry their actions haue made it so manifest, so I am vnwilling to say what rea∣son doth compell me, but onely to make apparant the truth, least I should seeme partiall, reasonlesse, and malicious.

CHAPTER XII. The Arrivall of the third Supply.

TO redresse those jarres and ill proceedings, the Treasurer, Councell, and Company of Virginia, not finding that returne, and profit they expected; and them ingaged there, not having meanes to subsist of themselues, made meanes to his Maiestie, to call in their Commission, and take a new in their owne names, as in their owne publication, 1610. you may •eade at large. Having thus annihilated the old by vertue of a Commission made to the right Honoura∣ble, Sir Thomas West, Lord de la Warre, to be Generall of Virginia; Sir Thomas Gates, his Lieutenant; Sir George Somers, Admirall; Sir Thomas Dale, high Marshall; Sir Fardinando Wainman, Generall of the Horse; and so all other offices to many other worthy Gentlemen, for their liues: (though not any of them had ever beene in Ʋirginia, except Captaine Newport, who was also by Patent made vice-Admirall:) those noble Gentlemen drew in such great summes of money, that they sent Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and Captaine Newport with nine shippes, and fiue hundred people, who had each of them a Commission, who first arrived to call in the old, without the knowledge or consent of them, that had endured all those former dangers to beat the path, not any regard had at all of them. All things being ready, because those three Captaines could not agree for place, it was concluded they should goe all in one ship, so all their three Commissions were in that Ship with them called the Sea-Venture. They set sayle from England in May 1609. [ 1609] A small Catch perished at Sea in a Hericano: the Admirall with an hundred and fiftie men, with the two Knights, and their new Commission, their Bils of Loading, with all manner of directions, and the most part of their provision arrived not. With the o∣ther seaven Ships as Captaines arrived Ratliffe, whose right name (as is sayd) was Sicklemore, Martin, and Archer, with Captaine Wood, Captaine Webbe, Captaine Moone, Captaine King, Captaine Davis, and divers Gentlemen of good meanes, and great parentage. But the first as they had beene troublesome at Sea, began a∣gaine to marre all ashore: for though (as is said) they were formerly sent for Eng∣land, yet now returning againe, graced by the titles of Captaines of the passengers, seeing the Admirall wanting, and great probabilitie of her losse, strengthened them∣selues with those new companies, so exclaiming against Captaine Smith, that they mortally hated him ere ever they saw him. Who vnderstanding by his Scouts the arrivall of such a Fleet, little dreaming of any such supply, supposed them Spany∣ards. But he quickly so determined and ordered our affaires, as we little feared their Arrivall, nor the successe of our incounter; nor were the Salvages any way negli∣gent for the most part, to ayd and assist vs with their best power. Had it so beene we had beene happy; for we would not haue trusted them but as our foes, where re∣ceiuing them as our Countreymen and friends, they did what they could to mur∣ther our President, to surprise the Store, the Fort, and our Iudgings, to vsurpe the government, and make vs all their servants and slaues, till they could consume vs and our remembrance; and rather indeed to supplant vs then supply vs, as master William Box an honest Gentleman in this voyage thus relateth.

In the tayle of a Hericano wee were separated from the Admirall, which although it was but the remainder of that Storme, there is seldome any such in England, or those Northerne parts of Europe. Some lost their Masts, some their Sayles blowne from their Yards; the Seas so over-raking our Ships, much of our prouision was spoyled, our Fleet separated, and our men sicke, and many dyed, and in this misera∣ble estate we arrived in Virginia.

But in this Storme,

When ratling Thunder ran along the Clouds;
Did not the Saylers poore, and Masters proud
A terror feele as strucke with feare of God?
Did not their trembling ioynts then dread his rod?
Least for foule deeds and black mouth’d blasphemies,
The rufull time be come that vengeance cryes.

To a thousand mischiefes those lewd Captaines led this lewd company, where∣in were many vnruly Gallants, packed thither by their friends to escape ill desti∣nies, and those would dispose and determine of the government, sometimes to one, the next day to another; to day the old Commission must rule, to morrow the new, the next day neither, in fine they would rule all, or ruine all: yet in charitie we must endure them thus to destroy vs, or by correcting their follies, haue brought the worlds censure vpon vs to be guiltie of their blouds. Happie had we beene had they never arrived, and we for ever abandoned, and as we were left to our fortunes: for on earth for the number was never more confusion, or misery, then their factions occasioned.

The President seeing the desire those Braues had to rule; seeing how his autho∣ritie was so vnexpectedly changed, would willingly haue left all, and haue returned for England. But seeing there was small hope this new Commission would arriue, longer he would not suffer those factious spirits to proceede. It would be too tedi∣ous, too strange, and almost incredible; should I particularly relate the infinite dangers, plots, and practices, he daily escaped amongst this factious crew; the chiefe whereof he quickly layd by the heeles, till his leasure better served to doe them iu∣stice: and to take away all occasions of further mischiefe, Master Percie had his re∣quest granted to returne for England, being very sicke; and Mr West with an hun∣dred and twentie of the best he could chuse, he sent to the F•lles; Martin with neare as many to Nandsamund, with their due proportions of all provisions according to thir numbers.

Now the Presidents yeare being neare expired, he made Captaine Martin Presi∣dent to follow the order for the election of a President every yeare: but he knowing his owne insufficiency, and the companies vntowardnesse and little regard of him, within three houres after resigned it againe to Captaine Smith, and at Nandsamund thus proceeded. the people being contributers vsed him kindly; yet such was his iealous feare, in the midst of their mirth, he did surprise this poore naked King, with his Monuments, houses, and the Isle he inhabited, and there fortified him∣selfe; but so apparantly distracted with feare, as imboldened the Salvages to assault him, kill his men, release their King, gather and carry away a thousand bushels of Corne, he not once offering to intercept them; but sent to the President then at the Falles for thirtie good shot; which from Iames Towne immediately was sent him. But he so well imployed them they did iust nothing, but returned complaining of his tendernesse: yet he came away with them to Iames Towne, leauing his company to their fortunes.

Here I cannot omit the courage of George Forrest, that had seauenteene Arrowes sticking in him, and one shot through him, yet liued sixe or seauen dayes, as if he had small hurt, then for want of Chirurgery dyed.

Master West having seated his men by the Falles, presently returned to reuisit Iames Towne: the President followed him to see that company seated; met him by the way, wondering at his so quicke returne; and found his company planted so inconsiderately, in a place not onely subiect to the rivers invndation, but round in∣vironed with many intollerable inconueniences.

For remedie whereof he presently sent to Powhatan to sell him the place called Powhatan, promising to defend him against the Monacans. And these should be his Conditions (with his people) to resigne him the Fort and houses, and all that Countrey for a proportion of Copper; that all stealing offenders should be sent him, thereto receiue their punishment; that every house as a Custome should pay him a Bushell of Corne for an inch square of Copper, and a proportion of Pocones, as a yearely tribute to King Iames for their protection, as a dutie; what else they could spare to barter at their best discretions.

But both this excellent place and those good Conditions did those furies refuse, contemning both him, his kinde care and authoritie. So much they depended on the Lord Generals new Commission, as they regarded none: the worst they could doe to shew their spights they did; supposing all the Monacans Country, gold; and none should come there but whom they pleased. I doe more then wonder to thinke how onely with fiue men, he either durst or would adventure as he did, (knowing how greedie they were of his bloud) to land amongst them, and commit to impri∣sonment all the Chi•ftaines of those mutinies, till by their multitudes being an hundred and twentie they forced him to retyre: yet in that interim he surprised one of their Boates, wherewith he returned to their ship; where in deed was their proui∣sion, which also he tooke, and well it chanced he found the Marriners so tractable and constant, or there had beene small possibilitie he had ever escaped. There were divers other of better reason and experience, that from their first landing, hearing the generall good report of his old Souldiers, and seeing with their eyes his actions so well mannaged with discretion, as Captaine Wood, Captaine Webbe, Cap. Moone, Captaine Fitz Iames, Master William Powell, Master Partridge, Master White, and divers others, when they perceiued the malice of Ratliffe and Archer, and their fac∣tion, left their companies, and ever rested his faithfull friends. But the worst was that the poore Salvages, that daily brought in their contribution to the President, that disorderly company so tormented those poore soules, by stealing their corne, robbing their gardens, beating them, breaking their houses and keeping some pri∣soners; that they daily complained to Captaine Smith, he had brought them for Protectors, worse enemies then the Monacans themselues: which though till then, for his loue they had endured, they desired pardon if hereafter they defended them∣selues; since he would not correct them, as they had long expected he would. So much they importuned him to punish their misdemeanors, as they offered (if he would leade them) to fight for him against them. But having spent nine dayes in seeking to reclaime them; shewing them how much they did abuse themselues with these great guilded hopes of the South Sea Mines, commodities, or victories, they so madly conceived; then seeing nothing would prevaile, he set sayle for Iames Towne.

Thus oft we see from small greene wounds, and from a little griefe,
A greater sore and sicknesse growes, then will admit reliefe:
For thus themselues they did be guile, and with the rest play’d theefe.

Now no sooner was the Ship vnder sayle, but the Salvages assaulted those hun∣dred and twentie in their Fort, finding some stragling abroad in the woods: they slew many, and so affrighted the rest, as their prisoners escaped, and they safely re∣tyred, with the swords and cloakes of those they had slaine. But ere wee had sayled halfe a league, our ship grounding, gaue vs once more libertie to summon them to a parley; where we found them all so strangely amazed with this poore silly assault of twelue Saluages, that they submitted themselues vpon any tearmes to the Presi∣dents mercy; who presently put by the heeles sixe or seauen of the chiefe offenders: the rest he seated gallantly at Powhatan,in that Salvage Fort, readie built, and pret∣tily fortified with poles and barkes of trees, sufficient to haue defended them from all the Salvages in Virginia, dry houses for lodgings and neere two hundred ac∣cres of ground ready to be planted, and no place we knew so strong, so pleasant and delightfull in Virginia for which we called it Non-such. The Salvages also hee presently appeased, redeliuering to either party their former losses. Thus all were friends.

New officers appointed to command, and the President againe ready to depart, at that instant arriued Captaine West, whose gentle nature (by the perswasi∣ons and compassion of those mutinous prisoners, alledging they had onely done this for his honor) was so much abused, that to regaine their old hopes, new tur∣boyles did arise. For they a-shore being possessed of all there victuall, munition, and euery thing, grew to that height in their former factions, as the President left them to their fortunes: they returned againe to the open ayre at Wests Fort, a∣bandoning Non such, and he to Iames towne with his best expedition, but this hap∣ned him in that Iourney.

Sleeping in his Boate, (for the ship was returned two daies before) accidentallie, one fired his powder-bag, which tore the flesh from his body and thighes, nine or ten inches square in a most pittifull manner; but to quench the tormenting fire, frying him in his cloaths he leaped over-boord into the deepe river, where ere they could recouer him he was neere drowned. In this estate without either Chirurgi∣an, or Chirurgery he was to goe neere an hundred myles. Arriving at Iames towne, causing all things to be prepared for peace or warres to obtaine provision, whilest those things were providing, Ratliffe, Archer, & the rest of their Confederates, being to come to their trials; their guiltie consciences, fearing a iust reward for their de∣serts, seeing the President, vnable to stand, and neere berest of his senses by reason of his torment, they had plotted to haue murdered him in his bed. But his heart did faile him that should haue giuen fire to that mercilesse Pistoll. So not fin∣ding that course to be the best, they ioyned together to vsurpe the government, thereby to escape their punishment. The President, had notice of their proiects, the which to withstand, though his old souldiers importuned him but permit them to take their heads that would resist his command, yet he would not suffer them, but sent for the Masters of the ships, and tooke order with them for his returne for England. Seeing there was neither Chirurgian, nor Chirurgery in the Fort to cur• his hurt, and the ships to depart the next day, his Commission to be suppressed he knew not why, himselfe and souldiers to be rewarded he knew not how, and a new commission granted they knew not to whom (the which disabled that authori∣ty he had, as made them presume so oft to those mutinies as they did:) besides so grievous were his wounds, and so cruell his torments (few expecting he could liue) nor was hee able to follow his busines to regaine what they had lost, suppresse those factions, and range the countries for provision as he intended; and well he knew in those affaires his owne actions and presence was as requisit as his directions, which now could not be, he went presently abroad, resoluing there to appoint them governours, and to take order for the mutiners, but he could finde none hee thought fit for it would accept it. In the meane time, seeing him gone, they perswa∣ded Master Percy to stay, who was then to goe for England, and be their President. Within lesse then an houre was this mutation begun and concluded. For when the Company vnderstood Smith would leaue them, & saw the rest in Armes called Pre∣sidents & Councellors, divers began to fawne on those new commanders, that now bent all their wits to get him resigne them his Commission: who after much adoe and many bitter repulses; that their confusion (which he •ould them was at their elbowes) should not be attributed to him, for leauing the Colony without a Com∣mission, he was not vnwilling they should steale it, but never would he giue it to such as they.

And thus, Strange violent forces drew vs on vnwilling:

Reason perswading ‘gainst our loues rebelling.
We saw and knew the better, ah curse accurst!
That notwithstanding we imbrace the worst.

But had that vnhappie blast not hapned, he would quickly haue qualified the heate of those humors, and factions, had the ships but once left them and vs to our fortunes; and haue made that provision from among the Salvages, as we neither feared Spanyard, Salvage, nor famine; nor would haue left Virginia, nor our lawfull authoritie, but at as deare a price as we had bought it, and payd for it. What shall I say but thus, we left him, that in all his proceedings, made Iustice his first guide, and experience his second, even hating basenesse, sloath, pride, and indignitie, more then any dangers; that neuer allowed more for himselfe, then his souldiers with him; that vpon no danger would send them where he would not lead them him∣selfe; that would never see vs want, what he either had, or could by any meanes get vs; that would rather want then borrow, or starue then not pay; that loued ac∣tion more then words, and hated falshood and covetousnesse worse then death; whose adventures were our liues, and whose losse our deaths.

Leaving vs thus with three ships, seaven boats, commodities readie to trade, the harvest newly gathered, ten weeks provision in the store, foure hundred nintie and od persons, twentie-foure Peeces of Ordnance, three hundred Muskets, Snaphan∣ces, and Firelockes, Shot, Powder, and Match sufficient, Curats, Pikes, Swords, and Morrios, more then men; the Salvages, their language, and habitations well knowne to an hundred well trayned and expert Souldiers; Nets for fishing; Tooles of all sorts to worke; apparell to supply our wants; six Mares and a Horse; fiue or sixe hundred Swine; as many Hennes and Chickens; some Goats; some sheepe; what was brought or bred there remained. But they regarding nothing but from hand to mouth, did consume that wee had, tooke care for nothing, but to perfect some colourable complaints against Captaine Smith. For effecting whereof three weekes longer they stayed the Ships, till they could produce them. That time and charge might much better haue beene spent, but it suted well with the rest of their dis∣cretions.

Besides Iames towne that was strongly Pallizadoed, containing some fiftie or six∣tie houses, he left fiue or sixe other severall Forts and Plantations: though they were not so sumptuous as our successors expected, they were better then they provided any for vs. All this time we had but one Carpenter in the Countrey, and three o∣thers that could doe little, but desired to be learners: two Blacksmiths; two saylers, & those we write labourers were for most part footmen, and such as they that were Adventurers brought to attend them, or such as they could perswade to goe with them, that neuer did know what a dayes worke was, except the Dutch-men and Poles, and some dozen other. For all the rest were poore Gentlemen, Tradsmen, Serving-men, libertines, and such like, ten times more fit to spoyle a Common-wealth, then either begin one, or but helpe to maintaine one. For when neither the feare of God, nor the law, nor shame, nor displeasure of their friends could rule them here, there is small hope ever to bring one in twentie of them ever to be good there. Notwithstanding, I confesse divers amongst them, had better mindes and grew much more industrious then was expected: yet ten good workemen would haue done more substantiall worke in a day, then ten of them in a weeke. Therefore men may rather wonder how we could doe so much, then vse vs so badly, because we did no more, but leaue those examples to make others beware, and the fruits of all, we know not for whom.

But to see the justice of God vpon these Dutch-men; Ʋaldo before spoke of, made a shift to get for England, where perswading the Merchants what rich Mines he had found, and great service he would doe them, was very well rewarded, and returned with the Lord La Warre: but being found a meere Impostor, he dyed most misera∣bly. Adam and Francis his two consorts were fled againe to Powhatan, to whom they promised at the arrivall of my Lord, what wonders they would doe, would he suffer them but to goe to him. But the King seeing they would be gone, replyed; You that would haue betrayed Captaine Smith to mee, will certainely betray me to this great Lord for your peace: so caused his men to beat out their braines.

To conclude, the greatest honour that ever belonged to the greatest Monarkes, was the inlarging their Dominions, and erecting Common-weales. Yet howsoever any of them haue attributed to themselues, the Conquerors of the world: there is more of the world never heard of them, then ever any of them all had in subiecti∣on: for the Medes, Persians, and Assyrians, never Conquered all Asia, nor the Gre∣cians but part of Europe and Asia. The Romans indeed had a great part of both, as well as Affrica: but as for all the Northerne parts of Europe and Asia the interior Southern and Westerne parts of Affrica, all America & Terra incognita, they were all ignorant: nor is our knowledge yet but superficiall. That their beginnings, ending, and limi∣tations were proportioned by the Almightie is most evident: but to consider of what small meanes many of them haue begun is wonderfull. For some write that e∣ven Rome her selfe, during the Raigne of Romulus, exceeded not the number of a thousand houses. And Carthage grew so great a Potentate, that at first was but incir∣culed in the thongs of a Bulls skinne, as to fight with Rome for the Empire of the world. Yea Venice at this time the admiration of the earth, was at first but a Marish, in∣habited by poore Fishermen. And likewise Ninivie, Thebes, Babylon, Delus, Troy, A∣thens, Mycena and Sparta, grew from small beginnings to be most famous States, though now they retaine little more then a naked name. Now this our yong Com∣mon-wealth in Virginia, as you haue read once consisted but of 38 persons, and in two yeares increased but to 200. yet by this small meanes so highly was approved the Plantation in Virginia, as how many Lords, with worthy Knights, and braue Gentlemen pretended to see it, and some did, and now after the expence of fifteene yeares more, and such massie summes of men and money, grow they disanimated? If we truely consider our Proceedings with the Spanyards, and the rest, we haue no reason to despayre, for with so small charge, they never had either greater Discove∣ries, with such certaine tryals of more severall Commodities, then in this short time hath beene returned from Ʋirginia, and by much lesse meanes. New England was brought out of obscuritie, and affoorded fraught for neare 200 sayle of ships, where there is now erected a braue Plantation. For the happines of Summer Isles, they are no lesse then either, and yet those haue had a far lesse, and a more difficult begin∣ning, then either Rome, Carthage, or Ʋenice.

Written by Richard Pots, Clarke of the Councell, William Tankard, and G.P.

New seeing there is thus much Paper here to spare, that you should not be altogether clered with Prose; such Verses as my worthy Friends bestowed vpon New England, I here present you, because with honestie I can neither reiect, nor omit their courtesies.

In the deserued Honour of the Author, Captaine Iohn Smith, and his Worke.

DAmn’d Envie is a sp’rite, that ever haunts
Beasts, mis-nam’d Men; Cowards, or Ignorants.
But, onely such shee followes, whose deare WORTH
(Maugre her malice) sets their glory forth.
If this faire Overture, then, take not; It
Is Envie’s spight (deare friend) in men of-wit;
Or Feare, lest morsels, which our mouths possesse,
Might fall from thence; or else, tis Sottishnesse.
If either; (I hope neither) thee they raise;
Thy  Letters are as Letters in thy praise;
Who, by their vice, improue (when they reprooue)
Thy vertue; so, in hate, procure thee Loue.
Then, On firme Worth: this Monument I frame;
Scorning for any Smith to forge such fame.

Iohn Davies, Heref:

To his worthy Captaine the Author.

THat which wee call the subiect of all Storie,
Is Truth: which in this Worke of thine giues glorie
To all that thou hast done. Then, scorne the spight
Of Envie; which doth no mans Merits right.
My sword may helpe the rest: my Pen no more
Can doe, but this; I’aue said enough before.

Your sometime Souldier, I. Codrinton, now Templer.

To my Worthy Friend and Cosen, Captaine Iohn Smith▪

IT over-ioyes my heart, when as thy Words
Of these designes, with deeds I doe compare.
Here is a Booke, such worthy truth affords,
None should the due desert thereof impare:
Sith thou, the man, deserving of these Ages,
Much paine hast ta’en for this our Kingdomes good,
In Climes vnknowne, ‘Mongst Turks and Salvages,
T’inlarge our bounds; though with thy losse of blood.
Hence damn’d Detraction: stand not in our way.
Envie, it selfe, will not the Truth gainesay.

N. Smith.

In the deserved Honour of my honest and worthy Captaine, Iohn Smith, and his Worke.

CAptaine and friend; when I pervse thy Booke
(With Iudgements eyes) into my heart I looke:
And there I finde (what sometimes Albion knew)
A Souldier, to his Countries-honour, true.
Some fight for wealth; and some for emptie praise;
But thou alone thy Countries Fame to raise.
With due discretion, and vndanted heart,
I (oft) so well haue seene thee act thy Part
In deepest plunge of hard extreamitie,
As forc’t the troups of proudest foes to flie.
Though men of greater Ranke and lesse desert
Would Pish-away thy Praise, it can not start
From the true Owner: for, all good mens tongues
Shall keepe the same. To them that Part belongs.
If, then, Wit, Courage, and Successe should get
Thee Fame; the Muse for that is in thy debt:
A part whereof (least able though I be)
Thus here I doe disburse, to honor Thee.

Raleigh Crashaw.

Michael Phettiplace, Wil: Phettiplace, and Richard Wiffing, Gentlemen, and Souldiers vnder Captaine Smiths command: In his deserved honour for his Worke, and Worth.

VVHy may not wee in this Worke haue our Mite,
That had our share in each black day and night,
When thou Virginia foild’st, yet kept’st vnstaind;
And held’st the King of Paspeheh exchaind.
Thou all alone this Salvage sterne didst take.
Pamavnkees King wee saw thee captiue make
Among seauen hundred of his stoutest men,
To murther thee and vs resolved; when
Fast by the hayre thou ledst this Salvage grins;
Thy Pistoll at his breast to governe him:
Which did infuse such awe in all the rest
(Sith their drad Soveraigne thou had’st so distrest)
That thou and wee (poore sixteene) safe retir’d
Vnto our helplesse Ships. Thou (thus admir’d)
Didst make proud Powhatan, his subiects send
To Iames his Towne, thy censure to attend:
And all Virginia’s Lords, and pettie Kings,
Aw’d by thy vertue, crouch, and Presents brings
To gaine thy grace; so dreaded thou hast beene:
And yet a heart more milde is seldome seene;
So, making Valour Vertue, really;
Who hast nought in thee counterfeit, or slie;
If in the sleight be not the truest Art,
That make’s men famoused for faire desert.
Who saith of thee, this sauors of vaine glorie,
Mistakes both thee and vs, and this true Storie.
If it be ill in Thee, so well to doe;
Then, is ill in Vs, to praise thee too.
But, if the first be well done; it is well,
To say it doth (if so it doth) excell.
Praise is the guerdon of each deare desert
Making the praised act the praised part
With more alacritie: Honours Spurre is Praise;
Without which, it (regardlesse) soone decaies.
And for this paines of thine wee praise thee rather▪
That future Times may know who was the father
Of that rare Worke (New England) which may bring,
Praise to thy God, and profit to thy King.
The Summer Ils.

The tribes ar signifyed by these Figurs 1. Sands 2. Southampton 3. Warwick 4. Padget 5. Pembrok 6. Cauendish 7. Smith 8. Hambleton.
St Catherins forte F
Pembroks forte K
Kings Castell M
Southampton forte L
Devonshire Redute O
A Scale of 8 Miles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
St George Towne D
Warwicks forte E
The 3 Bridges A.B.C.
P Riches Mount
State house
The Letters A.B.C. shew the sittuation of the 3 bridges P the Mount. D.E.F.G.H.I.K.L.M.N.O. ye forts how and by whom they wer made the histo∣ry will shew you. The discription of yeland by Mr Norwood. All contracted into this order by Captaine Iohn Smith.
Smiths forte I
Pagets forte H
Penistons Redoute G
Charles forte N
Printed by Iames Reeve


Smith, John, 1580-1631. by Text Creation Partnership at the University of Michigan is licensed under a Creative Commons Public Domain License.


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Open Anthology of American Literature Copyright © 2021 by Farrah Cato is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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